f-g-h-i-j

F

[A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I,J,K,L,M,N,O,P,Q,R,S,T,U,V,W,X,Y,Z,Æ,Ø,Å,0-9]

f.                      abbr for "fødd"
f.eks.                  e.g. (abbr)
f.kr.                   abbr for "født omkring"
f.t.                    abbr for "for tiden"
fam.                    abbr for "familie"
fam. still.             abbr for "familiestilling"
frgs                    abbr for "forregåendes"
fa'en                   a contraction of "fanden" when something goes bad
faar                    (see "får")
faarehyrde              (see "fårehyrde")
fabre                   abbr for "fabrikk"
fabrikk                 factory
fabrikkarbeidar         (see "fabrikkarbeider")
fabrikkarbeider         Factory worker
fader                   (see "far") (archaic)
faderen                 (see "faren") (archaic)
faderskap               (see "farskap") (archaic)
faddere                 sponsor, christening, parents, godparents
faddergave              present given to child by godfather or godmother 
                        at baptization /christening
faddernes navne         godparent's name; name of the witnesses
fadste                  (see "faste")
fagforeningsarbeidet    the work in the labor or trade union
fallesyke               epilepsy
faldt                   (see "falt")
faldne                  (see "falne")
falne                   the fallen
falt                    fall, be killed in war
familie                 family
familie historie        lineage books
familiestatus           family status
familiehoved            head of family
familienavn             family name, surname
familiestilling         position in the family, family status
fanden                  the devil
fange                   prisoner
fantepakk               (could be som more or less "bad" person, often used 
                        on thiefs, gipsys or other persons
far                     father
faren                   the father
faret til søes          gone to sea
farbror                 father's brother, uncle
farfar                  paternal grandfather
fargar                  (see "farger")
farger                  dyer
                        colour
farin                   castor sugar
farmor                  paternal grandmother
farskap                 paternity
farsslekt               fathers family
farsot                  pestilence, plague
fartøy                  vessel, craft
farver                  (see "farger")
faste                   fast
fastelaven              shrovertide
faster                  aunt (father's sister)
fastermand              (see "fastermann")
fastermann              husband of father's sister
fastlagt                (see "bestemt")
Faliglein               (see "fattiglem")
fattig                  poor
fattige                 gives few information (nn)
fattigattest            paupers reference
fattigbøsse             poor box
fattigcassa             (see "fattigkassa")
fattigdom               poverty
fattigforstander        manager of the poor relief fund
fattigfolk              poor people
fattigfornem            shabby-genteel
fattiggutt              poor boy
fattighus               poor-house
fattigslig              beggarly, poor mean
fattigkasse             poor relief fund
fattigkvarter           poor quarter
fattigkommisjonen       welfare commission, commision for the poor
fattiglem               pauper
fattigmann              poor man
                        fried cruller (cake)
                        poor man's biscuits
fattigunderstøttes      supported by the welfare agency
fattigvesen             welfare agency, poor relief, poor-law authorities
fattigvæsen             (see "fattigvesen")
favn                    embrace
                        fathom
feber                   fever
februar                 February
fedre                   fathers, partinal ancestors (archaic)
fehandlar               person in the cattle business
fehus                   cowhouse
fekk                    (see "fikk")
fele                    Pictures and information about Ordinary violin (vanleg fele)
felemaker               fiddle-maker
felespiller             fiddler, fiddle player
fell                    pelt, skin rug, rug, fur
fellmaker               Rugmaker
felles                  common, joint
felles sønn             son of both parent (used in census)
fellesfjøs              cowshed, cowhouse (for the cattle, livestock)
feltlivet               the camp life, life in the camp
feldskjær               military surgeon
felttog                 campaign, (military) expedition
fem                     five
fembøring               Fembøring
femte                   fifth
femten                  fifteen
femtende                fifteenth
femti                   fifty
femtiende               fiftieth
fengsel                 prison
fenrik                  ensign (1700's), second lieutenant (modern)
ferdiggjeringa          finishing
ferge                   ferry
fergegutt               boy working at the ferry
fergemann               ferryman
feskatt                 in 1628  cattle tax
feste                   foothold
                        (see "bygselbrev")
                        fixe
festeavgifta            contract fee
festergave              engagement present
festesetel              (see "bygselbrev")
festning                fortress
festningsstraf          for imprisonment
fetevarer               obsolete term for groceries, also old term for meat
fetter                  cousin (male)
fikk                    received (fikk is the past tense of "å få" (to get)), 
                        obtained, acquired
fikk ei datter sammen   got a daughter together (That was translation word by 
                        word. 
                        As I don't know the rest if the sentence, it is 
                        impossible to be professional.
                        But I thought you wanted to know some norwegean?
                        And the woman could have been pregnant with another
                        man than her husband?
finder                  (see "finner")
finker                  Finker, 
finne                   to find
                        fin (on fish)
                        person from Finland
finner                  find
Finnland                Finland
finnsk                  person or object from Finland
finsk                   finnish (kvensk) in census
fire                    four
firmenning              third cousin
                        see also RELATION 
fisk                    fish
fiskebruk               the gear(nets, boats and other tackle used in the fisheries)
fiskehandler            fishmonger
fiskekaker              Fish Cakes
fisker                  Fisherman
fiskeri                 fishery, Fishing
fiskerioppsyn           fishery protection, inspection
fiskeveger              (see "fiskeveier")
fiskeveier              a person who is weighing Fish
fjantet                 foolish, frivolous, silly, mentally handicapped to a light 
                        degree
fjell                   mountain
fjerde                  fourth
Fjerding                was used for a period in the 1700s and 1800s as a term for 
                        a school 
                        District a quarter barrel (measure vessel for cereals)
fjerdingsmann           was a person who had the task of making every farmer and 
                        husmann in the fjerding pay their contribution to the 
                        cost of keeping the School in operation.
fjorden                 fjord
fjorten                 fourteen
fjordepart              1/4
fjortende               fourteenth
fjærkre                 fowl, poultry
fjøs                    cowshed, cowhouse
                        cow barn
fjøsen                  the cow barn
fjøsstell               dairy management
flaade                  feet
flaademand              log driver
flaadningen             float
flaatningen             timber floating
Flaadmand               (see "Fløttmann")
flagg                   Norwgian Flags and Arms
flatmarksgrav           grave on flat ground
fledføring              (see "føderåd" and "kår")
flere                   several more
flid og oppfoerdsel     pains and behaviour
flittig                 diligent
fly                     aeroplane
flyfille                loose female
flymekaniker            aeromechanic
flyplass                airport
flyttande               moving
flytte                  move
flytte fra              move away from
flytte til              move to
flyttningsregister      migration register
fløyel                  velvet
flødningsarb.           log floating worker
Fløttmann               he had a small boat and used it to ferry people across 
                        a river. 
                        "Fløttmann" is a term for this occupation.
fløyte                  Pictures and information about flutes
fløytinga               timber floating / rafting timer down a river
fmd.                    (see "føderaadsmand") (abbreviation)
fodear                  (see "fødeår")
foderaadsmand           (see "føderådsmann")
foderaadskone           (see "føderådskone")
foderet                 fodder
fodested                (see "fødested")
Foedselsstiftelsen      (see "Fødselsstiftelsen")
fogd                    bailiff, sheriff
foged                   (see "fogd")
fogderegnskap           bailiff records, beiliwick records (archaic)
fogderi                 administrative unit (archaic)
foged                   (see "fogd")
folge                   (see "kår")
folio                   page (double)
folk                    People
folkmengde              population
folkekirken             state church
folkeopplysning         popular education
folkeregister           citizen register
folketallet             people census
folketelling            census, see Norwegian Census Records (John Føllesdal)
folketeljinga           (see "folketelling")
folktallet              (see "folketallet")
for                     for, at, before, by
                        fodder (for the livestock)
for at tjene mer        to earn more
for alle rettar         through all legal means
for tiden               for the time being
For at drive jordbrug   to farm
foraeldre               (see "foreldre")
foran                   in front of
forberedelse            preparation, grounding
forbilde                ideal, example
forbindelser            Connections
forblødning             bled to death
forbrytelse             crime
fordi                   because
forefaldt               (see "forefallt")
forefallt               occurred, happened
forregåendes            previous one listed
foreldre                parents
foreldreløs             orphan
forendes                united
foretaget               (see "foretatt")
                        enterprise, venture
foretatt                undertook
forening                society, Association
forettning              shop
forettningsmann         shopowner, (business) man
foretningsfører         (business) manage
forfatter               author
forfedre                ancestors, forefathers
forflødt                transferred
forfærdiger Kurver      making baskets
forfølgelse             pestering, haunting, pursuit, badgering, victimization
forgjenger              predecessor
forgreninger            branches, ramifications
forgylling              gilding
forhen                  (see "forhenværende")
forhv.                  (see "forhenværende")
forhenværende           former, previous, preceding
forhv. hmkone           (see "forhenværende husmannskone")
forhv. hmkone           former cotters wife
forhenværende           former
forhold                 situation, conditions
forhus                  house in front ( main house on farm )
forkjøpet               pre-emption
forkjølet               to have a Cold
forklaring              explanation
forkle                  apron
forkyndt                announced, proclaimed
forkynnararven          preaching Heritage
forlade                 (see "forlate")
forlate                 leave, abandon
                        forgive
forleningsbrev
forlikskommisær         personal posession
forlignelse             reconciliation
Forlovar                (see "forlover")
forlove                 engage to
forlovede               fiancé(e)
forlovelse              engagement
forlover                best man, maid of honour, sponsor
forlovere               marriage witnesses, sponsors or cautionister 
                        (best men) who served as witnesses to the fact that 
                        the bride and groom were not so closely related as to 
                        prohibit the marriage.
forlovet                engaged
Forløftningsmænd        men who gave a guarantee that the two could marry
formann                 foreman, supervisor
formandskabet           (see "formannskapet")
formannskapet           chairmanship, executive committee of parish or town council
formentl.               "shortened form of" formentlig
formentlig              probably
formiddag               morning
formue                  assets, property
                        fortune, meaning an assessment of the valuables 
                        (real estate, stocks and bonds, bank accounts, 
                        objets d'art, cars, boats etc.) in the persons 
                        possession, With his or her debts subtracted. 
                        Fortune is taxable, but you have to own a lot to notice it.
formueskatt             property tax
formynder               guardian
fornavn                 first name
fornminne               Field of relics
fornødenhed             necessity (of life)
forpakter               manager of estate
                        leaseholder, lessee, tenant
                        tenant farmer, one who leases the right to cultivate a farm
foragter af lidt jord   leasholder of a small Place
forpagtn                (see "forpaktning")
forpaktning             lease for tenant farmer
forpleining             board, food
forraadnelsfeber        (see "forråtnelsesfeber")
forretning              business
forridge                (see "forrige")
forrige                 former
                        previous
forringe                diminished, made poorer in quality
forråtnelse             decay, decomposition, or putrefaction
forråtnelsesfeber       fever caused by putrefaction, typhoid fever.
forsamblede             (see "forsamlet"
forsamlet               assembled, convened
forsikring              Insurance
forsikringspremie       insurance premium
forsiktig               careful
forskjelligt            (see "forskjelligartet")
forskjelligartet        varied
forskning               Research
forsorges               (see "forsørges")
forsorges af ham        provided for of him
forsorgsstyret          poor relief board or management
forstand                intellect, mind
forstoppelse            constipation
forsvar                 defence
forsvarsviljen          will to defend
forsvundne navn         names that have "disappeared"
forsørge                to provide for, support
forsørges av ..         supported by .. , cared for by ..
forsørget av ..         supported by .. , cared for by ..
forsørges ved
Privat godgjorenhed     supported by privat charity
forsåvidt               in as much as
fortegnelse             list, registry
fortelle                tell
Fortjenestemedalje      Order or Merit (a medal)
fortælle                (see "fortelle")
fortid                  past
fortsættelsesskole      Pupil at a school one level over the required minimum 
                        education. (archaic)
framhaldsskole          (archaic)
forurensning            contamination, pollution
forvalter               manager
forældre                (see "foreldre") (archaic)
fosterb.                abbr for "fosterbarn
fosterbarn              fosterchild
fosterd.                abbr for "fosterdatter"
fosterdatter            fosterdaughter
fosterdreng             forster child (boy)
fosterfar               fosterfather
fostermor               fostermother
fosters.                abbr for "fosterson"
fosterson               (see "fostersønn") (nn)
fostersønn              fosterson
fostre                  foster, to rear
fotograf                photographer
fotografi               photograph
fougit                  (see "fogd")
fra                     from
fradelt                 divided from
fradrag                 allowance/deduction/discount
fraflytte               leave, move away
 (hadde) frafløtt       have left, had moved from
fragtbeløp              cost of ticket, freight charge
fragtemand              (see "fraktmann")
frakt                   freight
fraktmann               freight / cargo handler / transporter
fram                    forward
framgang                (see "fremgang")
framskap                a certain type of cupboard, usual "innreiing"
fraværende              absent
fraskille               separate property
fraskilt jord           separated/dubdivided property
fredag                  Friday
frem                    forward
fremgang                progress, moving Ahead
framgå av               be a result of, appear from, be evident from"
frampå                  (see "frempå")
fremkomme               bring forward
fremmed                 foreign, foreigner
frempå                  in front
fremstående             prominent
fremtid                 future
frende                  kinsman, kinswoman, relative, kin, family
frendeløs               without kinsmen, lonely
frihandel               free trade, the policy of nearly unregistricted 
                        international trade
frihandler              This is a difficult term to translate. The modern usage of 
                        "frihandel" is free trade but this not the meaning here.
                        It would refer to someone who sold certain goods unhampered 
                        by regulation or by permits etc. It would not be correct 
                        to say a street hawker or door to door salesman, 
                        but it would be along that line.
frihet                  freedom, Liberty
frikvarter              break, interval, recess
frillesønn              might just be a derogatory term used by the enumerator,
                        but if the father was a married man, the term would be more 
                        or less justified
friluftsliv             outdoor life
friluftsmenneske        outdoor person
Frimerke                postage stamp
Frimerkebilder          postage stamp pictures (thumbnails)
friminutt               break, recess
frisørdame              lady hairdresser
fritid                  free time
fritidsinteresse        hobby
frivillig               volunteer
Frsværn                 abbr. for Fredriksværn (naval base), just south of 
                        Larvik in Vestfold
fru                     Mrs.
frue                    wife
fruentimmer             unmarried mother, female
                        person (derogatory) gay?
frugthandlerske         woman working in a fruit store or rather the owner of 
                        a fruit store
fruktsommelig           pregnant
frukthage               orchard
frydetoner              joyfull tunes
fryktelig               frightfully
frøken                  Miss
frå                     (see "fra") (nn)
fråhold                 (see "avhold")
fulde                   (see "full") (archaic)
fuldkomne               (see "fullkommen")
fuldmaegtig             (see "fullmektig")
fuldmegtig              (see "fullmektig")
full                    full, Complete drunk
fullkommen              Complete
fullmakt                power of attorney, autorization
fullmektig              head clerk, agent
futedømme               (see "fogderi")
futeregnskap            bailiff's accounts
fv.                     (see "forhenværende")
fylke                   Norway is divided as Norway - fylke - kommune
                        USA is divided as USA - State - county
fylkesmann              county Governor
                        county administrator, chief administrative officer of a 'fylke'
fylkesrådmann           county commissioner
Fylkesskogmester        County forest master/manager
fyr                     lighthouse
fyrbøter                stoker, beacon, light beacon, lighthouse keeper
fyrmester               foreman, boss (on the light house)
fyrmeister              (see "fyrmester")
fyrvesenet              lighthouse service of the Coast Guard
fyrstikker              matches
fyrste                  (see "første") (nn)
fut                     (see "fogd") (archaic)
fv                      forhenværende
fædre                   (see "fedre") (archaic)
fædrene                 (see "fedrene") (archaic)
fæehuss                 (see "fehus") (archaic)
fæl                     awful, terrible, horrible, disgusting
fælmager                (see "fellmaker")
fæle                    (see "fele")
fælemager               (see "felemaker")
fælleds                 (see "felles")
fælles                  (see "felles")
færdesmand              (ferdamann in nynorsk) it means a traveller
færge                   (see "ferge")
færgemand               (see "fergemann")
færgegutt               (see "fergegutt")
færre                   fewer
fætter                  (see "fetter")
fødd                    (see "født")
født omkring            born about
fødeår                  year of birth
føderaad                (see "føderåd")
føderaadsmand           (see "føderpdsmann")
føderaadskone           (see "føderådskone")
føderåd                 support received after giving ones estate to another,
                        the retirement agreement, also named as "kår" = kaar" 
                        Kår - føderåd 
                        a sort of pensioner, receiving support from new owners 
                        of the farm by contract made on the sale
                        (see "kår")
føderådskone            woman on "føderåd"
                        (see "kårkone")
føderådsmann            man on "føderåd"
                        (see "kårmann")
fødesogn                native parish
fødestad                (see "fødested")
fødested                birthplace
fødsel                  birth
fødselsattest           birth certificate
fødselsdag              birthday
fødselsdato             birthdate
fødselsraten            birthrate
fødselsår               year of birth
fødselsregister         register of birth
fødselstalet            birth census
Fødselstiftelsen        Maternity Hospital or a Birth Foundation in Bergen
født                    born
født utenom ekteskap    born out of wedlock
føl                     (see "føll") (nn)
føll                    foal
følgende                following
følges tilbake til      traced back to
før                     before
førartype               leader
føremann                predecessor
førenamn                given name
førend                  before
førnemnde               the former, mention before
fører                   pilot, guide, operator, master
førepenger              wedding garments and wedding ceremony
ført                    recorded, listed
først                   first
første                  first
førti                   forty
førtiende               fortieth
føst                    kicked away, kicked out
få                      to receive, to get
får                     sheep
                        receives, got
                        mutton
fårehyrde               Shepherd
fårskinn                skin of sheep

G

[A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I,J,K,L,M,N,O,P,Q,R,S,T,U,V,W,X,Y,Z,Æ,Ø,Å,0-9]

g.                      abbr. for "gård"
g.                      abbr. for "gift"
g.m.                    abbr. for "gift med"
g1g                     (see "gift første gang")
                        grdbr.,selveier, skogeier og fisker  
                        farmer., owner, skogeier and fish(erman)
gaar i dagleie          working on short terms
Gaar paa skole          goes to school
gaarsarbeide            (see "gårdsarbeide")
gaard                   (see "gård")
gaardbr                 (see "gårdbruker")
gaardbruger             (see "gårdbruker")
gaardbruker             (see "gårdbruker")
gaardbrukerenke         (see "gårdbrukerenke")
gaardbrukerkone         (see "gårdbrukerkone")
gaarden                 (see "gården"(
gaardmand               (see "gårdsmann")
gaardsdreng             (see "gårdsgutt")
gaardsarbeider          (see "gårdsarbeider")
gaardsgut               (see "gårdsgutt")
gaardskarl              (see "gårdsgutt"
gade                    (see "gate") (arcahic)
gal                     (see "sinssyk")
gallfeber               jaundice
galt                    crazy, wrong
                        male pig
                        wild boar (male)
gamle                   the old
gammel                  old
gammeldans              dancing, old-time dancing
                        traditional dance, folk dance
gammaldansmusikk        The music used to assist the "gammeldans"
gammelt                 old
gamleheimen             home for the aged
gamlingen               the old one
gangkone                ward aide or earlier nurse ( around 1850)
gangklær                clothing
ganske sikkert          pretty sure
gard                    (see "gård")
gardar                  (see "gårder")
gardfar                 head of the farm, freeholder
gardbruker              (see "gårdsbruker")
gardmann                (see "gårdsmann")
gardsfolk               (see "gårdsfolk")
gardshistorien          the history of the farm
gardsmann               (see "gårdsmann") (archaic)
gardsmandskone          (see "gårdsmannskone") (archaic)
gardsnavn               (see "gårdsnavn")
gardsnr                 (see "gårdsnummer")
gardsnummer             (see "gårdsnummer") (archaic)
gardsreiskap            (see "gårdsredskap")
garnisjonskirkegården   garrison cemetery
gartner                 gardener
garver                  tanner
garversvend             tanner assistant
gate                    street
gatenavn                name of the street
gatenummer              streetnumber
gave                    gift, endowment
geistleg                ecclesiastical
geit                    goat
geiter                  goats
gemene                  ordinary, common
gemene hop              ordinary crowd, ordinary people
genealogi               genealogy, family history
generalauditeur         highranking official whose work it is to control other 
                        officials in order to weed out graft and corruption
generalløyntnant        lieutenant general
generalmajor            major-general (UK), general major (US)
generalssekretær        secretary-general
generalstab             general staff
generasjon              generation
geografisk leksikon     gazeteer
Geografisk Oppmåling    A goverment mapping agency like the US Geoeodetic Survey
gev.                    abbr. for "gevorbne"
gevorbne                enlisted
(å) gifte seg           to marry
gift                    married
                        poison
gift 1 ste gang         married 1st time
gift første gang        married 1st time
giftet seg første gang  married 1st time
giftet seg att          married again
gift 2 de gang          married 2nd time
gift med                married to
giftet seg              got married
giftarmål               marriage (nn)
giftemålsaldern         marriage age
gifteferdig             marriageable
gikk                    walked
gikt                    rheumatism
giktbrudden             rheumatic, gouty
giktfeber               rheumatic fever
gilde                   feast, banquet, guild
gimre                   a ewe which has not yet lambedgjeit  (see "gjet")
gitt husrom             given shelter
giver                   giver, donor
                        transmitter, transducer
giætter                 (see "gjeter")
gjalle                  ring, resound, echo, reverberate
gjedde                  pike
gjeder                  (see "gjeter")
gjeld                   debt
gjeldfri                debtless
                        free from/of debt, out of debt
gjeldsandel             debt ratio
gjeldsbevis             promissory note
                        written acknowledgment of debt, an IOU
gjeldsbrev              debenture
                        debt instrument, instrument of debt, debt certificate, 
                        certificate of indebtedness/debt written acknowledgment 
                        of debt, an IOU promissory note
                        non-negotiable debt instrument/debt certificate
gjeldsfengsel           debtor's prison
gjelk med bles          a castrated horse with a white spot in the forehead
gjemt                   hidden
gjemsel                 hide and seek (game)
gjengangerens           spectre, ghost
gjenskjøpsretten        the right to re-purchase
gjenlevende             survivors
gjennom                 through
                        completely, thoroughly
gjennomgaaet et Kursus  attended a course
gjennomsyn              inspection or examination (being watched)
gjenstand               item
gjerne                  willing(ly)
gjest                   guest
gjest vrl               (see "gjesteværelse")
gjesterom               (see "gjesteværelse")
gjesteværelse           room for the guest
gjestgiver              innkeeper
gjestgjevar             (see "gjestgiver")
gjet,gjeit              goat
gjæte                   to herd, to mind > gjætte , past tense
gjeter                  herdsman, shepherd
gjetergutt              shepherd boy
gjordemor               (see "jordmor")
gjordemoder             (see "jordmor")
gjæst                   (see "gjest")
gjøre                   do, make, cause, render
gjørtler                brazier, brass smith
glasskule               a ball made of glass
                        (see "kavl")
glassverk               glasswork
glassmaleri             stained-glass painted piece
gloggkryddor            Glöggkryddor (swedish)
gløgg                   Glödd (swedish) Gløgg is a Swedish drink that has become 
                        popular in Norway as well.
                        It is only (mostly) used at Christmas time.
gløm dette              forget it
gmd                     abbr. for "Gaardmand, gårdmann"
Gnav                    Games played with single suited cards
Gnr.                    (see "gårdsnummer") abbr.
god                     good
God Jul                 Merry Christmas
Gode ønsker             Best wishes
gods                    estate
godsarkiv               manors archive
godseier                estate owner
goldsmith               gullsmed
goro                    Cardamom crackers
grahest                 stallion
graastein               (see "gråstein")
graasteinarbeider       (see "gråsteinarbeider")
grandnevø               grand-nephew
grandniese              grand-niece
grandonkel              grand-uncle
grandtante              grand-aunt
gratis (Latin)          free
grav                    grave
grave                   to dig
graver                  grave digger, sexton
gravfeste               (see "jordpåkastelse")
graffest                (see "jordpåkastelse")
gravhaug                barrow, grave-mound  (interest to archeologists)
gravid                  pregnant
gravlagt                burried
gravlegge               to bury
gravlund                cemetery
gravsten                gravestone
grdbr.                  (see "gårdbruker")
gren                    branch
gren.                   abbr. for "grenader"
grenader                infantryman, grenadier
grend                   rural neighbourhood/area
grense                  boundary, border
grenselos               borderpilot, who followed people across the border and 
                        knew how to avoid the germans
gressenke               grasswidow
greve                   Count (Nobility)
grevinne                Countess
gribber                 vultures
gries                   (see "gris")
gris                    pig
grisen                  the pig
grishus                 the house for the pigs
grip(p)a                (see "influenza")
grossist                wholesaler
grovsmed                blackmith
grube                   mine, pit
grubearb                (see "gruvearbeider")
grubearbeider           (see "gruvearbeider")
grunn                   ground, reason
grunnleggjar            founder
grunnleggjaren          the founder
grunnleggjarar          founders
grunnleggjarane         the founders
gruvearbeidar           (see "gruvearbeider")
gruvearbeider           Miner
grønn                   green
gråstein                granite boulder, stone
gråsteinarbeider        stone cutter
gubben                  a slang for an "old man" or the oldest male person 
                        in the household
gudfar                  godfather
gudmor                  godmother
Gudselskende            a religous person
gull                    gold
gulsot                  jaundice
gulv                    floor
gutt                    boy
gutte-galen             crazy after boys
gymnas                  senior high school
gymnasiast              sixth-former, high school student
Gymnastik               Gymnastics
gøymt                   (see "gjemt")
gå                      go, walk
går frem av             (see "framgå av")
gågate                  a street for pedestrians only
gård                    farm
gårder                  plurel of "gård"
gårdsarbeide            general farm labor
gårdsarbeider           a person working at a farm, field hand
gårdsbestyrer           farm manager
gården                  the farm
gårdsfolk               farm people, owners or tenants
gårdsgutt               farm hand
gårdsplass              courtyard
gårdsbruk               farm
gårdsbruker             farmer (farming his farm)
gårdbruker              farmer
gårdbrukerenke          farmer's widow
gårdbrukerkone          the wife to a farmer
gårdeier                farm owner
gårdmann                owner of the farm
gårdmannsfolk           those on the head farm
gårdmannskone           farmer's wife
gårdsdeling             division of the farm, often that a mainfarm is split up 
                        as New generation grew up and needed farms of their own
gårdsgutt               farmboy
gårdsmann               (see "grårdmann")
gårdsnavn               name of the farm
gårdsnummer             farm number, land number
gårdsredskap            farm equipment
gårsdagens              of yesterday

H

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h.h.v                   abbr. for "espectively" (henholdsvis)
hpg.                    abbr. for "hospitalgods"
hr.                     abbr. for "Herr"
ha                      to have
haandværker             (see "håndverker")
haandarbeide            (see "håndarbeide")
hadde                   had
haer                    (see "hær")
hafde                   (see "hadde")
hagebruk                Gardening
halsesyke               throat infection
halshugget              decapitated
halv                    half
halvbror                half-brother
halvningen              halving
halvsøsken              half-brother(s) and/or half-sisters(s)
halvsøster              half-sister
ham                     him
                        skin, Slough
hamlekorn               (see "hummelkorn")
hammer                  hammer
                        mallet
                        knocker
                        gavel
                        hammer, malleus
hammerskaft             hammer handle, hammer shaft
hammerslagg             iron scale, oxide scale
hammersmed              Hammersmith
hamn                    port
han                     he
handarbeidslærer        teacher of needlework, sewing, etc
handel                  trade
handelsbestyrer         shop manager
handelsbetjent          shop assistant, salesman
handelsbrev             business license, permission to buy and sell goods 
                        in a specified area.
handelsfuldmægtig       (see "handelsfullmektig")
handelsfullmektig       business agent or Assistant
handelshøyskolen        college of economics and business administration
Handelskarl             Businessman
handelslaget            cooperative store
handelsmann             merchant, trader
handler                 merchant, dealer or peddler
handlerske              female tradeperson
handskemager            (see "hanskemaker")
handskrifta             (see "håndskrifta")
handteinrokk            distaff = a split stick that holds the wool or flax 
                        for spinning
handtlanger             (see "håndlanger")
hans                    his
hansker                 gloves
hanskmaker              (see "hanskemaker")
hanskemaker             glove maker
har                     has, have
hardingfele             (see "fele")
hatt                    hat
hattemaker              hatmaker
Haud                    second class in university exams, "Haud illaudibilis" 
                        means "Hardly unpr Hiseworthy"
hav                     ocean, sea
havbruk                 fish farming, fish breeding
                        aquaculture, mariculture, sea farming
havebrug                (see "hagebruk")
havestue                garden room
havfiske                deep-sea fishing
havde                   (see "hadde") (archaic)
havn                    harbor, port
havre                   Oats
hederlig                honourable
hedret                  honoured
hei                     heath, moor
heia                    (see "hei")
heieslåtten             upland haying
heim                    home (nn), se also "hjem"
heimangaver             (see "medgift")
heime                   at home (nn)
Heimedøypar             (see "hjemedøper")
heimeplassen            (see "hjemmplassen")
heimelsbrev             document to prove ownership, authority, etc.
heimevernet             Home guard (military guard) but not similar to the 
                        US National Guard
heimstad                (see "hjemsted")
heimtur                 the journey home
hele                    whole, entire
hekle                   crochet
heks                    witch  The storry of Lisbet Pedersdatter Nypan
hekseri                 Witchcraft
                        hellar (nn)
heller                  rather
helleristning           rock carving
hellig                  holy
helligdag               holiday
helsa                   (see "helse") (nn)
helse                   greetings (dialect) (see "hilse")
                        Health
hendes                  (see "hennes") (archaic)
hendes datter           (see "hennes datter")
hengt seg               hanged him/herself
hennar                  (see "hennes") (nn)
henlagt                 put away, dismissed
henne                   her
hennes                  her (iee her children)
hennes datter           her daughter
her                     here
herad                   (see "herred") (archaic)
heradsskriver           district taxation registrar
herkomst                ancestry
herlighed               (see "herlighet")
herlighet               glory
Herr                    Mr. (salution used in letters. Equal to Mr.)
herredsrett             district Court
herred                  municipality and judicial district, now called 
                        "kommune" (archaic)
herredstyre             (see "kommunestyre")
herregård               mansion/estate
Herren                  God, the Lord
hertil                  to this Place
hertugdommene           (see "hertugdømmene")
hertugdømmene           dutchies
hest                    horse
hestesele               horse's tackle
hestesal                horse saddle
hestetruger             Horse snow shoes
Hesteutstilling         Horse show
heter                   is named
hexe                    (see "heks")
Hiemme i Huuset         (see "hjemme i huset")
hilsen                  greetings (from)
                        best regards (from)
hi                      the other (nn)
hindes datter           her daughter
hindes son              her son
historie                history
hittebarn               orphan, foundling
hjell                   drying rack for Fish
hjelpe                  help, assist
hjelpepleier            Enrolled Nurse
hjem                    home
hjemme                  at home
hjemme hos forældrene   living at the parents house
hjemme i huset          if in connections with marrieage "they were married at 
                        their home"
                        (their own or parents jouse)
Hjemme og Ute           At home and abroad
hjemedøper              Person who took the christening in the home
hjemmedobt              (see "hjemmedøpt")
hjemmedaap              (see "hjemmedøpt")
hjemmedaabe             (see "hjemmedøpt")
hjemmedøbt              (see "hjemmedøpt"
hjemmedøpt              baptized at home
hjemmehørende           residing
hjemmeværende           living at home
Hjemmedåp bekreftet     home Christening/baptism veryfied
hjemmet                 the home
hjemplassen             domicile, the place at home
hjemsted                place of residence
hjemv.                  stays at home
hjemvendt               returned home
hjernen                 brain
hjerneblødning          stroke, cerebral hemorrhage
hjerneslag              stroke
hjernesvulst            brain tumor
hjerte                  heart
hjertefeil              heart disease
hjerteinfarkt           hart attack, myocardial infarction
hjertesvikt             heartfailure
hjertesykdom            heartdisease
hjo                     at (nn)
hjort                   deers
hjortetakk              stag's antler, hartshorn
hjortetakksalt          salt of hartshorn, spirit of hartshorn, sal volatile
hjul                    wheel
hjulbåten               the paddleship or the wheelship
hjulmaker               wheelwright
hjv.                    abb. for "hjemmeværende"
hjælpe                  (see "hjelpe") (archaic)
hjælper Moderen         helps the mother
hjå                     (see "hos") (archaic)
hoire                   (see "høyre")
hm                      abbr. for "husmoder"
hmkone                  (see "husmannskone")
hmd                     abbr. for "husmand"
hmds                    abbr. for "husmandssønn"
HMKG                    Hans Majestet Kongens Gard = His Majesty The King's Guarde
holde                   hold, stop
holdmann                (see "kårmann")
hor                     adultery
horn                    horn
hornskeier              spoons of horn
hos                     with, at
hos foraeldrene         (see "hos foreldrene") (archaic)
hos forældrene          (see "hos foreldrene") (archaic)
hos foreldrene          with the parents
hospital                hospital
hospitalgods            land belonging to a hospital and leased out to farmers
host                    (see "høst")
hoste                   cough
hovedliste              census list
hovedpart               main part
hovedsakelig            mainly, principally
hovedstaden             capital, ie Oslo, London
hovudpart               (see "hovedpart") (nn)
Hubners geografi        Hubner's Geography
hud                     cow hide
                        tax on land was often measured in terms of number of hides
huff-da                 (see "uff-da")
hummelkorn              (from Scottish Hummelcorn) 
                        (korn uten snerp)
                        fellesbetenglse på kornslag som ble regnet som fine; 
                        de ble sådd i forholdsvis små mengder og helst ikke 
                        brukt i det daglige.
                        On the westcoast (var det mest bygg og blandkorn)
                        (hamlakorn) som ble klat hummelkorn
                        On the eastpart (kunne hummekorn betenge både hvete, 
                        rug, skall-løst bygg (torekorn) og erter.
hun                     she
hundre                  hundred
hus                     house
hus- og fjøsstel        housekeeping and working in the barn
husar, hussar           cavalryman
husbestyrerinde         housekeeper
husbonde                head of household (husband)
husbondens sødskende    The head of household's siblings
husdyr                  farm animal,. eg. cattle, horses, etc
huset                   the house
husejer                 (see "huseier")
huseier                 houseowner
huseierske              female houseowner
huseigar                (see "huseier")
husfader                the father of the house (the owner of the place)
husfader og fisker      head of household and fisherman
huusfader og fisker     (see "husfader og fisker"), head of household
husfaderens soster      logerende  Head of household's sister boarder
husflid                 home craft
husgjerning             household, housework
hushjelp                housemaid
hushalderske            (see "husholderske")
husholdereske           (see "husholderske")
husholderske            housekeeper
husholdstatus           status in houshold
husholdning             household
husjomfru               a female housekeeper
Huslig arbeide          domestic work
huslyd                  a family unit living together in a house
husmand med jord        (see "husmann med jord")
husmand smed og fisker  tenant farmer blacksmith and fish(erman
husmandssønn            (see "husmannssønn")
husmand                 (see "husmann")
husmann                 cottager, tenant farmer, crofter, smallholder, 
                        person who rented a house
                        with or without a small plot of land on larger farm.
                        Rent was paid by doing part time work for the farmer.
                        see also Norwegian farms - some background informationHusmann
                        "I don't think there is a good English word for 'husmann'. 
                        It is variously defined as cottager, cottier, cottar, crofter 
                        and cotter. Most of us use the word cotter. 
                        The term smallholder carries the implication of ownership, 
                        which is far from the husmann's case. 
                        Many cotter's places became smallholdings when the 
                        cotter was able to buy it. An tenant farmer is far too 
                        grand for the husmann's position. 
                        The husmann was allowed to erect his
                        house on encumbered land, usually in return for farm labour. 
                        Then there is the problem of 'med jord' and 'uten jord'. 
                        Such land as he could use was essentially for his own 
                        domestic need and not farming per se.
                        (Olav Kringhaug at the Noway-L January 29 2005)"
husmann med jord        person (a cottier) who rented a house with small plot of 
                        land on a lager farm
husmann med plads
husmann m j             (see "husmann med jord")
husmann uten jord       cotter without land
husmann med lidt jord   cotter with a small pice of land
husmann u j             (see "husmann uten jord")
husm.søn                son of a cotter
husm.datter             daughter of a cotter
husmannsenke            cotter's widow
husmannsfolk            cotter who worked for the "gårdmann" in return  
                        for (small) pay and a house and generally a small 
                        pieve of land for their own use
husmannskone            the wife of a "husmann"
husmannsplass           cotter's farm
husmannsseddel          written contract between "husman" and the farmer
                        that he rented from
husmannssønn            the son of the tenant farmer, the son of a cotter
husmoder                (see "husmor")
husmor                  housewife, female head of the household
husmorskole             home economics school
hustand                 household
hustuft                 house site
husstel                 (see "husstell")
husstell                housekeeping
hustru                  wife (see also "kone")
hustømmermann           (see "snekker")
hustømrer               house carpenter
huusmand                (see "husmann")
hva                     what
hvad                    (see "hvad") (archaic)
hval                    wale
hvalolje                waleoil
hvalstasjon             Kvalstasjonen på Skorøy
hvem                    who
hver                    every
hvete                   wheat
hvetemel                white flour, wheat flour, plain flour
hvilken                 which
hvis                    if, whose
hvit                    white
hvitblakk grå hest      a gray dun colored horse
hvor                    where
hvordan                 how
hvordan har du det      how are you
hvorfor                 why
hvorfra indflyttet      where moved from
hvormed                 wherewith
hvorvidt                whether
hyling                  yelling, howling, wailing, whining, hooting se also hylle
hylle                   shelf (plural: shelves
                        ledge (in the maountain)
                        acclaim, hail, validate (eks. "To validate someone's 
                        importance")
                        pay tribute, pay homage to (eks. "pay homage to the late 
                        author")
                        applaud
hyllest                 homage
hyst                    (see "gitt husrom")
hytte                   cabin
hæderlige               (see "hederlig") (archaic)
hækle                   (see "hekle")
hær                     army
høi                     (see "høy") (arcahic)
høj                     (see "høy") (arcahic)
højde                   (see "høyde") (archaic)
høgde                   (see "Høyde")
høker                   small, grocer, huckster
                        small tradesman (el. shopkeeper
hønseri                 poultry farm, hennery, chicken farm
høst                    fall, autumn (the season)
høy                     tall, high,
                        hay
høyde                   height
høyonne                 the haying time
høyre                   right (side)
høve                    possibility, access
høvleri                 planing mill
høvedsmann              fishingboat master, shack master
hånd                    hand
håndarbeide             handwork, Needlecraft
håndtering              occupation
håndlanger              assistant, helper, hodman
                        henchman
håndverk                trade, handicraft
håndverker              tradesman
håndskrifta             the handwriting
håndsverkssvenn         journeyman

I

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ikr.                    abbr. for "ikring"
innrull.                abbr. for "innrullert"
ind.                    abbr. for "inderst"
ibid                    ibidem, means the same place
i                       in, within
i går                   yesterday
i beste fall            at best
i så fall               if so, if that is the case
i hjel, slå             kill
i hvert fall            at least at any rate, at all events, anyhow, in any case
i motsatt fall          if not, otherwise
i si tid                in his time (nn)
ibid                    same place (archaic)
ibidem                  same plac
iboende Beqvemmelighed  by lodger is meant renter of the occupied accomodation
ihvertfal               at least
ihjelslagen             beaten to Death
ikje                    (see "ikke") (archaic)
ikke                    not
ikke døpt enda          not christened yet, not baptized yet
ikke hjemmedøbt         not home-baptised/christened
ikkje                   (see "ikke") (nn)
ikring                  about, approximately
ild                     fire
ildebrann               accidental fire
imellum                 (see "imellom")
imellom                 between, among
imidlertid              meanwhile
imigrere                immigrate
imorgan                 tomorrow
indebrændt              died in a fire
inderst                 (see "innerst") (archaic)
indeholder              (see "inneholder") (archaic)
indehaver               (see "innehaver")
indgik ægteskab         (see "'inngikk ekteskap")
indlæg                  (see "innlegg") (archaic)
indsee                  (see "innse") (archaic)
indsidderske            a female "inderst" (archaic)
Indsidder               (see "innerst") (archaic)
indst                   (see "innerst") (archaic)
indstrumentmager        instrument maker (archaic)
indre                   inner (as opposet to outher)
indrull                 enrollment office
indtækt                 (see "inntekt") (archaic)
infarkt                 (see "hjerteinfarkt")
infeksjon               infection
ingeniør                engineer
ingen                   none
imgefær                 ginger
ingensomhelst           nonwe what so ever
introduserte            Chrurching a woman, event that happened after childbirth, 
                        introduced.
                        Some 40 days or so after a baby's birth the mother's were 
                        'introduced' back into the congregation; they couldn't go 
                        to church during that period of time after the baby was born. 
                        This appears to be a list of male names and I suspect 
                        the word after each name is 'hustru' - wife. 
                        The wife of each man was introduced back to the congregation 
                        after giving birth, becoming a mother.
                        'Benedictio mulieris post partum ante ostium ecclesiae' 
                        (Latin) Churching of women or Churching of women
inn                     in
inne i                  inside
innehaver               owner
inneholder              contains
innreiing               (see "innredning")
innredning              furniture, probably mostly of the kind that are fixed parts 
                        of the house (built into house)
innerst                 renter, innermost, lodger on a farm,
                        see also Norwegian farms - some background informationinnerst
                        inner, inmost, innermost, next to the wall innerstfolk 
                        people living in rented house without any contract of work 
                        on the farm, typical a tailor, shoemaker
innfl                   abbr. for "innflyttet"
innflytte               move into
innflyttet              moved in (to parish)
innflyttede             list of people moving in (in churchbook some records)
innflytning             moved in
inngikk ekteskap        entered into matrimony, got married
inhabil                 incompetent, unqualified, disqualified (legal)
innflyttede             moving in to the area
inngifte                intermarried
inngå                   enter, go in, enter into
innhegning              enclosure, paddock
innhold                 content
innlagt vatn            indoor water installation
innlegg                 contribution, speech
innløse                 redeem
innmeldte               registering for School registering for new in the church 
                        (in churchbook)
innrullere              enlist (military)
innrullert              enlisted (military)
innse                   comprehend, realize
innsitter               renter
innsjø                  lake
inntekt                 profit, receipt, Revenue
                        income, meaning taxable income, i .e. total income with
                        the cost of doing whatever you do  to make a living subtracted.
                        (If you run a business, you deduct all business costs. 
                        If you are a wage earner, you still have a lot of interesting 
                        deductions, like the cost of travelling to your job, 
                        whatever you pay in interest on loans, and a host of other, 
                        smaller deductions. The whole system is complicated, 
                        but this is the grist of it.) This means that the 
                        Incomes you find on the tax returns for each individual, is not
                        what they actually made, but what they made minus deductions.
inntreder               to join, the army or a society.
innvandre               immigrate
innvandring             immigration
innvie                  dedicate
inste                   (see "innerst")
instrumentmager         (see "instruentmaker")
instrumentmaker         toolmaker
Intet vides             no further information is known
introdusert             Churchung a woman is also called "introduced" 
                        and this was an old custom.
                        Woman who had given birth to a child had to stay away from the 
                        church a certain time after giving birth, normally 6 weeks. 
                        After childbirth a woman was considered unclean until she
                        At the first time in church (after 6 weeks) she had been 
                        "churched" or introduced to the church again. (Also said she 
                        was introduced to the congregation. 
                        The minister/parson/priest met her at the churchdoor and so 
                        attended her into the church. There was a ritual there before 
                        she was actually allowed to step into the house of God.
                        This introduction date was recorded in the churchbook. 
                        In the records it says things like "Introduceret Ole Olsens 
                        qvinde". 
                        Often it was saying Qvinde, hustrue, q, h (shorten the words) 
                        This custom was officially abolished in the mid 1700 but at 
                        some places the custom have been active up the this century.
                        (A few gen. program has this as event) introducere             
                        (see "introdusert")
iqvateere               lodge, accommodate
intet                   none
Intet samfund           no society
introduceret
invie                   (see "innvie")
island                  Iceland
islandsk                icelandic
isskjauer               issjauer = ice + (see "sjauer")
isskjærer               isskjærer = ice + (see "skjærer")

J

[A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I,J,K,L,M,N,O,P,Q,R,S,T,U,V,W,X,Y,Z,Æ,Ø,Å,0-9]

jfr.                    abbr. for "jevnfør"
Jaegere                 Elite troops of the army
jaeter                  (see "gjeter")
jaekteskipper           (see "jekteskipper")
jagtliv                 hunting life
jakt                    hunting
jamfør                  (see "jevnfør")
jamgodt                 equivalent to
jamstore                equally large
januar                  January
jeg                     I
jeger                   light infantry soldier 
                        hunter, trapper
jekt                    small cargo boat with half deck and sails
jektefører              captain on the "jekt"
jekteskipper            skipper of a "jekt" a relatively small sailship, especially 
                        used in Northern Norway
jente                   (see "pike")
jernbane                railroad, railway
jernbanearbeider        railroad worker
jermbanefullmektig      clerical officer, managing clerk at the Railroad
jernbaneselskap         railroad company
jernbanlæg              railroad Construction
jernvarer               iron items
jernvegsarb.            (see "jernbanearbeider")
jernverk                iron works, iron mill
jernverksarbeider
jetergut                (see "gjetergutt")
jevnfør                 compare with, see
jevnførelsesliste       index, cross-reference in church records
jomfru                  damsel, Miss, virgin or maiden
jonsok                  midsummer day
jord                    soil, earth, mud
                        land,
jordakeren              (see "jordåkeren")
jordarbeider            farmworker, field laborer, agricultuaral worker
jordatausa              farmgirl (wench)
jordbeskrivelse         ("earth description" ) geography
jordet                  (see "jordpåkastelse")
jordboka                land register, real estate register, the official land 
                        register book if you like
jordbruk                farming
jordbruker              farmer
jordbruksareal          farming area
jordbruksarbeide        working on a farm
jordbruksarbeider       farm-hand, farm worker
jordbruksområde         areas for farming
jordbruksredskap        agricultural equipment
jordbruksskole          agricultural school
jordbrukstellinga       land registration (for taxation)
jorderike               the earth, the world
jorbøkene               (see "jordbøker")
jordbøker               landregisters, real estate registers
jorddrott               landlord
jordegods               landed property, lands
jordeier                landed proprietor, landowner
jordet                  buried
jordfeste               funeral service just after burial
                        or some times many month later (depending on season and location)
                        (see also "jordpåkastelse")
                        (A few gen. program has this as event)
jordfæftelfes           (see "jordpåkastelse")
jordfestelse            (see "jordpåkastelse")
jordkjellar             a separate earth cellar for storing potatoes, etc.
Jordløs husmand         Cottar without land
jordmor                 midwife
jordrotten              the landowner,
                        but usually used to describe someone who owned much land
jordpåkastelse          interment
                        "jordfeste" or "jordpåkasting" refers to the priest's blessing 
                        on the grave/coffin some times after that the coffin was put 
                        into the grave.
                        (by tossing soil onto the coffin). Usually this would occur at 
                        the same time as the burial, i.e., the priest would be present 
                        at the burial and toss soil onto the coffin. 
                        If, however, the priest was away, it frequently, occurred that 
                        the priest would conduct the "jordpåkasting" some time after 
                        the burial. It seems quite odd, however, that the person died 
                        16 Dec 1879 and the "jordfeste" did not occur until 21 Aug 1881. 
                        I can't think of any good explanation for that delay.
                        (John Follesdal, in epost to Norway-L, 
                        Date: Sun, 11 Oct 1998 16:46:48 -0500)
jordpåkasting           (see "jordpåkastelse")
jordskatten 1802        landtax of 1802
jordskjelv              earthquake
jordskyld               rental fee for renting land
jordåkeren              farmfield
journalist              journalist
jul                     Christmas
jul i Norge             Christmas in Norway
julekake                Christmas cake, fruitcake, fruit Loaf
juli                    July
jungmand                orinary seaman
juni                    June
jurist                  lawyer
jus                     law
justis                  justice, administration of justice order, discipline
justisråd               ????
jæger                   (see "jeger")
jævil                   (see "djevel")
jætergut                (see "gjetergutt)
jøde                    Jew
jøkel                   glacier
Reklamer