pants. abbr. for "pantsette" pd. abbr. for "pund" pg. abbr. for "pige" pk. abbr. for "pike" prb. abbr. for "prestebol" prgj. abbr. for "prestegjeld" paaliggende (see "pålagt") paarørande (see "pårørande") paaske (see "påske") paaskjønnelse (see "påskjønnelse") pagina (Latin) page paktar (see "forpakter") pakkhusarbeider warehouse worker pallemanckes skiørt (Kalemankes skiørt) silken skirt, the surface of the silk cloth was cured with fir juice to achieve a special effect pant mortage, collateral for a loan pantebok mortgage record a chronological protocol where deeds, contracts and other documents of juridical and economic importance for the farms in a parish/kommune where recorded or referred pantepengene the mortgange money panteregister an index to a "pantebok" where the information is ordered by farm number pantsette mortage, give as collateral for a loan parsell plot of land part part parykkmaker wigmaker passe mind, watch, look after, take care of, tend pastor vicar, minister pave pope penger money pengemangel scarcity of money pengenød need for money pension (see "pensjon") pensjon pension pensjonering retirement pensjonær boarder pensjonist retired person pention (see "pensjon") pepperkaker gingerbread cookies, gingersnap pepper pepper pepperbøsse pepperbox pergament parchment, vellum perle pearl permisjon leave of absence permitert be on leave persesylte mock brawn, Head Cheese, collared head person person personnr persons number pest plague pige (see "pike") (archaic)(danish) pike girl, maid umarried female female domestic servant pikebarn female child pikenavn maiden name pinse Pentecost, Whitsun, White Sunday pk. abbr. for "pike" p. abbr. for "pike" (often for unmarried female) planlegging planning, organizing plante plant plads (see "husmannsplass") (archaic) pladser (plural of plads) pladsbrugerske female user of the farm pladsmann (see "husmann") (archaic) pladsmandsdatter the daughter of a cottar pladsmannsson (see "husmannsønn") (archaic) plassmannssønn (see "husmannsønn") (archaic) plass (see "husmannsplass") plassen ble nedlagt farm remained neglected or vacant (in other words no one took it over at that time) plassmann (see "husmann") platearbeider sheet metal worker pleie nursing, care look after, nurse, take care of be accustomed, be used to pleie- og aldershjem nursing and old people's home pleiebarn (see "foster barn") pleiedtr (see "pleiedatter") pleiedatter foster daughter pleiefar foster father pleieforeldre foster parents pleiemor foster mother pleiehjem nursing home pleieassistent nursing assistant, care assistant pleiepersonale nursing staff pleiestiftelse nursing home or orphanage, depending on other information in the context. An institution where care and attention was given to persons who needed it. It is an old-fashioned word, not used in Norwegian anymore. The word gives a hint of charity. pleiesønn (see "foster son") plejesøn (see "pleiesønn") (archaic) plog a plow politi police politiker politician polske Polish post mail postaabner (see "poståpner") postbud (see "postmann") postfart served the postdistribution postkonvensjen postal practices agreement postmann mailman, mail carrier postmester postmaster poststyrer postmaster on a small postoffice poståpner the person who takes care of the mail on a small rural place potet potato pottemaker potter praest (see "prest") praktstykke (see "prakteksemplar") prakteksemplar magnificent specimen predike preacher prædiken sermon, speech preses pesident, chairman prest minister, priest, clergyman presteattest Attest from the minister prestebol land belonging to a parish, usually refers to the farm house where the priest lived (the vicarage) prestegaard (see "prestegård") prgj. abbr. for Prestegjeld prestegjeld clerical district, parish; see The Norwegian Church several "prestegjeld" makes one "prosti" A ecclesiastical district of administration which comprises two or more sub-parishes ("sogn"), headed by a rector. prestegård minister's farm and farmhouse, rectory, vicarage, parsonage preussiske Prussian primstav clog almanac prins prince prinsesse princess privat private privatlaerer (see "privatlærer") privatlærer private teacher, tutor privet toilet producerede produced prost dean besides being a parish clergy, senior rector, senior priest who supervised the priests in the subparishes prosti Several "prosti" make one "bispedømme" protokoll minutes, written log provst (see "prost") præst (see "prest") præstegjeld (see "prestegjeld") pund old measurement 1 pund = 6 kilogram pølsemaker sausage maker pølsemagersvend journeyman to a sausage maker på on, at, upon på 1700-tallet in the 1700's påført added pålagt imposed pårørande relation, relative, next of kin, The bereaved family påske Easter påskebrun easter tan påskjønnelse acknowledgement, appreciation, bonus, reward påskudd pretext, pretence, excuse påtegnet annotated
quinde (see "kvinne") (archaic) quinder (see "kvinner") (archaic) Qvindemennske female people
res. abbr. for "resolusjon" radiotelegrafist radio operator, wireless operator rbdl. abbr. for "riksbankdalar" rdl. abbr. for "riksdalar" randet striped rasande furious raspeball potato dumpling realeksamen (might bee "realskoleeksamen" realskole secondary school, junior high school realskoleeksamen now called "ungdomsskoleenksamen (10th grade); "equal" to the English "lower secondary school" realregister real estate registry redaktør chief editor reder shipowner rederi shipline redningskoite (see "redningsskøyte") redningsskøyte lifeboat, rescue boat, rescue vessel redningssentral rescue centre, rescue co-ordination centre US: rescue center, rescue coordination center, rescue operations center Redningstjenesten Rescue Service redningsvest life jacket, safety jacket, safety vest regimentsfeldtskær Regimental Field Surgeon regimentkameater regimental comrades/colleagues regiment kvartermester regimental quarter master, an officer in charge of supplies. register index, register registrert registered regjering government regning bill regning do arithmetic/mathematical reier (see "reder") nn cavalcade, company on horseback convey on horseback company of riders on horseback regnskap account reinsdyr reindeer reise to travel raise (reise et spørsmål = raise a question) to erect get up (reise seg) a journey reisedato departure date reisemål destination reiser til sin mand travel to her husband reisetid travelling time reisetill. permission to travel i.e. emigrate rejese (see "reise") rekke row, line reach rekkje (see "rekke") rekning arithmetic. math rekna arithmetic, math reknast accounted as rektor headmaster, school Principal religion religion reluitionsretten (see "gjenskjøpsretten") rengjøring cleaning rennende running as in "running water" rentenist rentier, person of independent means reparatør repairer, mender, repairman representant representative repslager ropemaker resolusjon resolution resterende the remaining restparten the remaining portion restsattt tax due rett court right, correct rettferdig just, righteous rettsak law suit rettsleg legal revisor auditor Rheumatism. chronic med Diarrhoe Chronic rheumatism with diarrhea ridder knight ride ride rig (see "rik") (archaic) rik wealthy rikeste mann the richest man riksbankdalar old measurement riksdalar old measurement Rikstrygdeverket Norwegian State Social Security Office Rigstelegrafen' (see 'Releverket') riktig correct ridende (see "rennende") ring poor quality, used to describe fields ring ring inntekt poor income Ritmester (see "Rittmester") Rittmester Cavalry Captain rode (see "rote") roeskarl (see "roerskarl") roskarl (see "roerskarl") roerskarl oarsman, row-man rokk Spinning wheels, see Spinning wheels rorbu fishermen's cabins rosstjeneste military service on horseback rostjeneste military service on horseback rostieniste tax which funded the military horsemen rosteneste rotbryter (see "stubbebryter") rote smallest subdivision of a conscription district a group of farms which kept up a section of the road by work in kind; he section of the road itself rug rye (the grain) rulle list, roll rullepølse Spiced Meat Roll see also Preserving our Norwegian heritage... rumpetroll tadpole, baby frogs rundt around rutebil bus, coach rydde clear rydning clearing rydningsmannen the pioneer (the original clearer of land) rydningsrøyser pile of stone on a clearing (the clearing being made by placing the stones in piles rydningsstykke A small place of land that was cleared by the pioneer rykke advance (also other meanings depending on context) rytter cavalryman rømme run away, desert, escape, leave, quit rømmegrøt cream pudding rønningen (see "rydningen") røttene roots rørlegger plumber røykstove smoke house (mostly used for smokin (curing) meat and fish), but also the room in the house (stue) where the men retired after dinner to have their cigarettes. røys stone pile, heap of stones råd advice råde connecting rod, con-rod advise, recommend, caution prevail, command, rule, be master råde bygselen decide or prevail the renting rådhus city hall rådmann councilman rådstuearkiv local courts archive /courthouse archive rå for be master of, have control of rår present tense of the verb "rå"
s. abbr. for "sønn" or "samme", depending on context s.å. abbr. for "samme år" ss abbr. for "Spiseskje" sk. abbr. for "skøyte" skld. abbr. for "skylddalar" skill. abbr. for "skilling" skmk. abbr. for "skyldmark" spd. abbr. for "speciedalar" St. abbr. for "Sancte" s.k. abbr. for "såkalt" sa said, stated sabbat Sabbath sadelmager mester master saddlemaker. sadelmagerlærling saddlemaker's apprentice saeter (see "seter") sag saw (see "sak") saga saga (see "historie") b.m. sagde (see "sa") sagen the saw (see "saken") nn (archaic) sagarbeider working at a sawmill sagbruk sawmill sagbrukseier sawmill owner sagbrugsarbeider sawmill worker sagmester master sawmiller sagnet legend, myth sak case saken the case sakfører (see "advorkat") salig deceased, holy, blessed salmaker saddle maker salmebok hymn book salt salt sambo monoecious, synoecious (see "samboer") samboende cohabiting samboer cohabitee, common-law wife/husband live-in (boyfriend/girlfriend) legal form for person to live together, even if they have children samboerforhold equal to "non-marital" or "extra-marital cohabitation" common-law marriage sambt together with same same a Lapp (nomadic people in nothern Norway) sammets certain quaity of silk samfunn society samisk Lapp (nomodic people in northern Norway) samisk fastboende samic, residential samisk, nomade samic, nomadic samleie intercourse samman together (nn) sammanboende (see "sambo") samme same samme dag the same day samme år same year sammen together sammested same place samstundes same time samtlige all samtykke consent, agreement sars cotton Sars or 'sarses' is also called 'sakses' = fabric woven of Saxon wool. sat smått i det was doing poorly sat tungt i det "Had a hard time" or "difficult times" (related to the economical situation of the person(s) in mind) sau sheep sauehus sheep stalls scibred (see "skipreide") s.b. (see "samboer") se to see se også refer to seg oneself, himself, herself seg selv in itself segni (see "sagnet")(archaic) seieren the victor seil sail seile to sail seilboat sailboat seildukmaker canvasmaker seilmager sailmaker seilte sailed seinare (see "senere") (nn) sekretær secretary seks six seksten sixteen sekstende sixteenth seksti sixty sekstiende sixtieth selde (see "selgde") (nn) selgde sold selge sell seljefløyte willow flute or willow pipe (see also "fløyte") How to make Seljefølyte selv self selveier owner, freeholder, se also Norwegian farms - some background informationselveier selvejer (see "selveier") selvmord suicide senere later seng bed sengeliggende bedridden separeret separated september September sereige (see "Særeie") (nn) sersjant sergeant seter summer cabin with grazing land in the mountains, sia later on, thereafter (nn) side page, side sidehus side house siden since, later sidenummer page number sidemummer i kilden Page in the source sielffuer (see "seg selv") siktebrød Norwegian Rye bread sild herring sildaeventyret herring adventure (an advebture with huge quantity of herring in fishing) sildearbeide herring processing, packing, salting etc silingsbøtter milk buckets sitt his, her, hers, its, their, theirs sin her, his, hers, its sine their, theirs sindelag disposition, temper, perperament, sentiment, opinion sinnskrise nervous breakdown sindsvag (see "sinnsvak") (archaic) sinnsvak insane, retarded sinnsyk mentally ill, mad sinnsykehus insane saylum, madhouse sinnssykasyl (see "sinnsykehus") sinssyk lunatic sirs cotton siselørlærling engraver apprentice siste last, latter siste olje last rites sidstnævntes last mentioned sidstenæmntes (see "sidstnævntes") sitte løst be easy to get, be easy to obtain sitte ned sit down, take a seat sivstand (see "sivilstand") sivilstand marital status (g = Gift = M =married; ug = Ugift = unmarried/single; e = enke/enkeman = widow/er) sjauer dockhand or worker, longshoreman or stevedor sjef chief, manager sjeleregistrer early parish register a type of census that was done by the minister to enumerate all the residents of the parish. They are typically by gård and bruk and included husmann plasser. During the 1700's many of the census information only includes males and did not cover the entire family. The sjeleregister included women, children and hired hands sjette sixth sjo (see "sjø") also for other word starting with "sjo" sjokadett (see "sjøkadett") sju (see "syv") (nn) sjuende seventh sjuk (see "syk") (nn) sjukdom (see "sykdom") (nn) sjuårskrigen the seven year long (1563-1570) inter-Nordic war between Sweden and the countries of Norway-Denmark, Poland and Lübeck. A Peace treaty was signed at Stettin in 1570. Sweden had occupied Jemtland and Herjedalen (Norway), while Norway-Denmark took Alvsborg (Sweden). Sweden had to return their occupations and cede Gotland and pay Ransom for Alvsborg. sjø sea, lake sjøaure salmon trout sjøbruk (see "havbruk") sjøfarende sea faring, seaman, sailor sjøfart navigation shipping sjøfløyte (see "fløyte") sjøfolk seaman sjøforklaring maritime declaration sjøgang heavy sea sjøhus quayside room sjøkadett naval cadet sjøkaptein captain on a vessel sjøl (see "selv") sjømand (see "sjømann") sjømands..... (see "sjømanns...") sjømann sailor, seaman sjømannshjem sailor's home sjømannskirke seamen's church sjømerke seamark, beacon, navigation mark, buoy sjømil nautical mile sjøorm sea serpent sjøreise voyage sjørett maritime court sjøslaget the naval battle sjå (see "se") might also be a small house (nn) sjåfør driver skaffar (see "skaffer") skaffer to provide for, obtain skal shall, must skalk outside slice, first cut (of a loaf) bowler hat skalke batten down the hatches skalkeskjul blind, cover skall shell, test skalp scalp skalpell scalper, scalpel (med.) skamfere spoil, damage skarlangensfeber scarlet fever skarp scrap skarpretter executioner, hangman skarpskytter sharpshooter skatt tax you have paid tax for each payment from your employer (he send it to the authorities) after a table made up by the goverment the year before. On your tax return it will show if this prepayment is Ok, or less or to high, then you either get a bill for the rest (3 weeks to pay or a Nice payback with a low interest (do not save your money here!) skatt og avgift tax and duty/fee skattefut tax collector, (the) taxman skatteinnkreving tax collection skattelister tax registers, taxation roll Skattemanntall census like listing of persons subjected to pay taxes skattematrikkel written tax roll, register skatteregel tax rule skattesats tax rate skattetakst valuation of property for rating purposes skaut headscarf, square, kerchief skautut with a white head (about manimals) skeiser (see "skjøyter") skemaker (see "skjemaker") (archaic) skib (see "skip") (archaic) skibsfører ship's captain (archaic) skieløber (see "skiløper") skifte Norwegian skifter -- Probate Records (John Follesdal) by John Follesdal change Division of an estate skifteattest certificate of probate skiftebøker probate protocols skifteprotokoll probate record book / estate inventory skifteregister probate register skifterettsdommer probate judge skifteretten probate court skiftesamling meeting of all heirs and beneficiaries skiftetvist probate action skild (see "skilt") skilde divorce, partition, subdivide skille to divorce, partition, subdivide skilling old currency, see Old measurements skilsmisse divorce skilt divorced skilting signposting skiløber (see "skiløper") skiløper infantry soldier on skis skinn skin (f.eks. human skin, the skin of a calf (, a shark, a sheep, a snake)) skinnfell skin rug skip ship, vessel skipreide military district (archaic) skipper skipper, master mariner skipperborger shippmaster and citezen, belonging to a social layer above the working class skipsbygger ship builder Skipsopplysningsregister = Ship Supply Information Register skipstømmermann carpenter onboard a ship skjedde happened skjemaker a man making spoons skjorte shirt skjut mare (see "Skaut") skjærer cutting something to smaller pieces Skjærtorsdag Good Thursday skjønnsforretning appraisal, valuation skjønnsretten the appraisal or valuation court skjøte deed (property) (nn) skjøyta (see "skøyte") skjøyte ice skates (see "skjøte") boat, read fiskeskjøte = fishingboat sko shoes skoemager (see "skomaker") (archaic) skomager (see "skomaker") skog forest skogdrift forestry, forest management skogholt grove, spinney skogsarbeider limberjack, logger, forestworker skogfut forest bailiff? skoghogger (see "skogsarbeider") skogridder forest manager skogtømmer forest timber skogvokter forester skole school skolebarn school child (student) skolediscipel pupil skoledistrict (see "skoledistrikt") skoledistrikt school district skoleholder schoolmaster, teacher in early times, the owner of the place where the school was held. skolekorps school's marching band skolemester schoolmaster skolestue the small building used for school skolestyre school board skomager (see "skomaker") (archaic) skomagerdreng shoemaker apprentice skomagersvend (see "skomakersvenn") skomaker shoemaker skomakermester master shoemaker skomakersvenn shoemaker journeyman skoskatt in 1711 shoe tax skoten (see "skutt") skov (see "skog") skovarbeider (see "skogsarbeider") skovhugger (see "skogsarbeider") (archaic) skovvokter (see "skogvokter" skovridder (see "skogridder") skrabhandler (see "skraphandler") skraeder (see "skredder") (archaic) skraedder (see "skredder") skraphandler scrap dealer in junk metals, etc skredder tailor skreddermester master tailor skreddersvend apprentice tailor skreppe bag, knapsack (about girls) bird, piece, bint skreppehandel pedlary skreppekar pedlar, peddler skriftlige written skriftlig writing skrin small chest skrivekar (see "kontorist") (archaic) skriver scribe (writer) skrædder (see "skredder") (archaic) Skrædderm. (see "skreddermester) skræddemester (see "skreddermester") skræddersvend (see "skreddersvend") skude (see "skute") skyds (see "skyss") (archaic) skudsmålsbog servant's conduct book skuld (see "skyld") (archaic) skulle should skurekone cleaning woman skuronne the harvest time skute small ship skutt shot skyld debt tax, (especially real estate tax, see "landskyld") a measure for evaluation of ground, and this is the explanation for the word "skylddeling". skylddeling (land) survey (in USA?) skylddalar taxes owed in "dalar" skyldfri (about property) unencumbered innocent, blameless, guiltless, chaste, pure debtless, free from debt skyldmark taxes owed in "mark" skyldsatt appraised and split of from another property - and given a relative value in the land registry system skyldsetning taxation, assessment skyldskap relationship skyldspørsmål question of guilt skynde på noen hustle el. hurry somebody skynde seg hurry skynde seg å hasten to, lose no time in skyss conveyance (transport of travelers by horse or boat) skysset henne av sted they bundled her off skyssgodtgjørelse travel allowace skysshest post-horse skysspenger fare skyss-skaffar a person who provides for transport/conveyance skysstasjon posting station, posting inn, coaching inn skyssvogn stagecoach, post chaise (was also used to take post and human) skyte shoot skærpedes is sharpened skøyte boat (see "skjøte") skate skøytebok register of transfers of ownership of real estate skålgrop cup hole skårunge the first year boys in the Lofoten fisheries slag blow stroke, apolectic stroke military battle slagbenk bench which opens into a bed (Haugen) slegfredbarn child of unmarried parents, born outside marriage, also called "uægte"/"uekte" slagter (see "slakter") slakt meat, slaughtered animals slakte to butcher slakter butcher slarv idle gossip, tattle slarva ut did not take care of their property slave a prisoner sentenced to hard labour slave slegfreddatter extramatarial daughter. slekt relatives, family, lineage slekten the family, lineage slektninger relatives slektsforskning genealogy slektsgren branch, line of a family slektshistorie family history, genealogy lineage books slektsnavn family name, surname slektsvåpen family coat of arms slik thus, in this way slott castle, palace slottsmenight the parish associated with the castle area slyng loop, winding, turn slægten (see "slekten") (archaic) slægtfred slegfred slå thrash, beat, flog slå ihjel kill slått mowing hay slotten the haying (cutting, mowing); the hayfield slåttonn mowing season smaabruk (see "småbruk") (archaic) smaafæ (see "småfe") (archaic) smak taste smale (see "sau") smed blacksmith smedlærling blacksmith apprentice smedmester master blacksmith smie forge, smithy smykke jewelry, ornament, piece of jewelry smør butter smørambarar buttercups småfe usually means calves, sheep and goats but used as a common term for cloven-hoofed animals småbruk small farm småbruker a farmer of a small farm småkrøtter (see "småfe") småkveg (see "småfe") snart soon snarrådig resourceful snedker (see "snekker") snedker for egen regningself-employed cabinet maker snekker (funiture-) cabinetmaker, (timber-)carpenter, (house-) joiner snikkar (see "snekker") snøskred avalanche snædker (see "snekker") soeksende (see "søsken") sofarende (see "sjøfarende") soga (see "historie") n.n. soge (see "historie") n.n. sogn subparish, see The Norwegian Church A ecclesiastical district of administration, headed by a curate. sogneprest subparish priest A rector is the head of a parish (prestegjeld) and a senior official (subordinated a bishop). sokn (see "sogn") (archaic) sokneprest (see "sogneprest") (archaic) Solbær-syltetøy Black currant (jam) sols sieve (?) for barley, a throe with small holes in it soldat soldier, probably an infantryman. soldat i borgerkrigen soldier in the Civil war soldag u.k. soldier under command solgt sold soleis (see "slik") som who, which, that som det sig sømmede which was appropriate, suitable (for a person of her social class) somand (see "sjømann") sommer summer son (see "sønn") (archaic) sonnedatter (see "sønnedatter") sonneson (see "sønnesønn") Sonnesøs grandchild soremand (see "sjømann") misspelling sorenskriver magistrate, probate judge, see Norwegian skifter -- Probate Records (John Follesdal) sort black sose bort blunder away sosialkurator social worker, welfare officer sosialsjef director of social services spann bucket (old measurement) (18 kg of butter) team of horses, oxes, dogs spannsteigflekket a patch of land that would pay 1 spann,annual land rent. spanskesjuka (see "spankesyken") spanskesyken Spanish flu sparke to kick spark (see "sparkstøtting") sparkstøtting chair sledge spebarn infant, baby spedalsk leprous spedkalv (see "spekalv") spekalv sucking calfs spekekjøtt hung beef spekelår mutton ham spekelår mutton ham spekemat cured meat, dried meat spekesild salt herring spenne buckle, clasp stretch, strain, tighten, strap speciedaler old currency, see Old measurements before 1875 spillemann musician, fiddler spillesykja leprosy spinderiarbeider spinning mill worker spinderske (see "spinnerske") spinding (see "rokk") spinnerske female spinner spiseskje litteraly "eating spoon" = metric value of 15 millilitres (15/1000 litre). spisestue dining room spiseværet (see " spisevært") spisevært landlord, host of a dinner establishment, eating house keepe spiskam (see "spiskammer") spiskammer pantry, larder spiseskje tablespoon tablespoonful (measure) sprit alcohol språk language ss abbr. for "spiseskje" st. abbr. for "Student" stabbur storehouse on pillars stabburet the storehouse stad town stader (see steder") stadfeste If this occur in connection with a baptism, it tells that the child has first been baptized at home. We can say it is verifying a bapt/Chr, done outside church (at home/hospital etc). This was most probably because the child was very ill and in danger of dying, and a month later the child baptism was confirmed by the minister in church in a special ceremony. This still happens sometimes, you know. Sometimes new-born babies are baptized in hospital, too, if there are complications. (A few gen. program has this as event) stadfestelse (see "stadfeste") Stadthauptmand every city of some size had a so-called "borgergarde" - citizens military corps. The Stadthauptmand was its commanding officer stald (see "stald") staldkarl stall groom stall barn, stable, usually a (horse)stable stamfar progenitor stamgods inherited property/estate stamrulle basic list used by the militay to adjust their own list over possible soldiers, passed on list from the church stamtavle descendancy chart, ancestry table stand social position Start med bilde nr start with picture number stasjonsmester station master or manager (at the raiload) staten the national government statsarkivet National archives statsalmenning government common lands statsbanene (see "NSB") statsborgerskap citizenship statsminister prime minister stattholder governor, viceregent staup drinking cup, goblet smørstaup staut kar fine fellow, stalwart fellow stavafabrikken stave factory stavkirke stave church stebarn step child stebror step brother sted place, location steder places, locations stedatter stepdaughter stedsnavn name of location stefar step father stefne (see "Stevne") stefning (see "stevning") stefnemaal (see "stevnemål") stenarbeider (see "steinarbeider") steinarbeider stoneworker steler for .... (see "steller for ...") steller for ..... keeps house for ...... stenarbeider stone quarry worker stenhugger (see "steinhogger") steinbrot (see "steinbrudd") steinbrudd stone quarry, quarry steinhogger stone cutter steinsetjingar (see "steinsetting") steinsetting pavement, stone pitching, riprap stemets certain quaity of silk stemmeberettiget qualified to vote stemor step mother stervboe (see "dødsbo") might be done as a connection to the German word "sterben" = to die stesønn step-son stesøster step-sister stevning summons stevne summon stevnemøte to make a date stevnemål suit stevnevitne process-server, bailiff stifdatter (see "stedatter") stifson (see "stesønn") stiffson (see "stesønn") stiffsøn (see "stesønn") stift diocese (archaic) There is more than one church in a parish and more than one parish in a stift. A higher level in the Lutheran organization. Stiftskriver an official ("embetsmann") of whom there was one in every len or (after 1660) amt. His job was to control or keep track of the church wardens ("kirkeverge") of whom there was one in every parish. The church wardens handled the properties and incomes of the churches. stifterlseslem a person that receive support from a "stiftelser" stiftelse a foundation, probably local, established by some wealthy person or diocese to aid the poor and ill stiger forman of miners stilling status, position, occupation stipendium scholarship stiv heks (grandmother's footsteps (game) stokkfisk (see "tørrfisk") stor large storfe cattle storkveg cattle (nn) storlevande (see "Storfe") stormoppslag stort konjakkglass (se "drink") stova (see "stue") stove small house or cottage where the people are living (nn) stovehus The house where people are living straebsom (see "strevsom") straff punishment straffange prisoner straks right away, immediately strand beach strandsidd (see "strandsitter") strandsitjarar (see "strandsitter") strandsitter person who rented a house on a larger farm near or at the coastline, see also "husmann" strev toil, labour strevsom hardworking strax (see "straks") stridighed (see "stridighet") stridighet stubborness, willfulness. conflict, dispute, controversy stridt difficult strikkerske a knitter strikking knitting strubehoste (see "strupehoste") strupehoste croup strygerske ironer, female strykepike ironing (laundry) maid stræbsom (see "strevsom") stubbebryter stump puller student student stue a small house, cottage a room in the house, living room, ward (at hospital) stow (in shipping) stuer stevedore (in shipping) stuepike parlourmaid, housemaid (in a home) chambermaid (at a hotel) stuert steward stugu (see "stue") stum mute (can't speak) stuver (see "stuer") stygg ugly stykkson (see "stesønn") stykson (see "stesønn") stuttmål (see "korthet") (nn) stygg ugly (look like) bad, nasty, ugly, foul (behave) styrer ruler, director styrmand (see "stymann") styrmann ships mate stæedatter (see "stedatter") støbe (see "støpe") støber (see "støper") støper (see "støperiarbeider") støberiarbeider (see "støperiarbeider") støpe casting or concrete (often metal in a foundry) støperiarbeider foundryworker, foundryman støl (see "seter") største largest støype (see " støpe") (nn) står stands står skrevet to be written sukker sugar Sukkersyge (see "sukkersyke") sukkersjuke (see "sukkersyke") sukkersyke diabetes summa (Latin) totals summarisk statistical, summary surrekopp buzzhead, "muddle-headed" or restless kid susselsat (see "sysselsatt") svartbrune black-brown, dark brown svartkinn black cheek svartflekket black spotted svag (see "svak") svak weak svakhet weakness svart black svend (see "svenn") svenn journeyman svensk Swedish Sverige Sweden svigerdatter daughter-in-law svigerfader (see "svigerfar") svigerfar father-in-law svigerforeldre father-in-law and mother-in-law svigerinne sister-in-law svigermoder (see "svigermor") svigermor mother-in-law svigersønn son-in-law svin pig svoger brother-in-law svulst tumor svulst i maven tumor in the stomach svær large sy to sow syd south sydlig southern sydvest south west sydøst south eas syerske seamstress, a woman who is sewing/ lives from sewing clothes etc syfilis syphilis syg (see "syk") sygebesøg (see "sykebesøk") sygehuus (see "sykehus") sygehuuslem hospital patient sygelig (see "Syklig") sygepleier (see "sykepleier") sygepleierske (see "sykepleierske") syk sick sykdom disease, illnes Sykdomstilstand, Sykdom Impairment Varighet av sykdomstilstand Duration of impairment sykebesøk sick call sykehus hospital sykepleier nurse sykepleierske nurse (female) syklig sickly synte thought synet eyesight, the ability to see sypige (see "sypike") (archaic) sypike seamstress syskenbarn cousins (nn) sysselsatt med employed at syster (see "søster") (nn) sytten seventeen syttende seventeenth sytti seventy syttiende seventieth syv seven syvende seventh Sædegaard = setegaard the nobleman's head farm where he was living. 'Sædegaardene' had economic priviledges - e.g. did not pay any taxes. sængeliggende (see "sengeliggende") særtrekk special facial feature distinctive characteristics Særeie Separate estate/property særtrykk offprint, a separate special printing sæter (see "seter") søen (see "sjø") søfarende (see "sjøfarende") søfartsbok seafaring book søger seeks søk i bikdearkivet seek in picture archive søkeord search-word (keyword) sølje Sølje sølv silver sølvbeslag silver mounting sølvstandard silverstandard sølvvaerksarb (see "sølvverksarbeider") sølvverksarbeider silver smelter worker sølveigar farmer who owns his own farm, i.e. does not lease it (nn) sølvmark silvermark (in 1522 we can use the value of "landskyld" - in some part of Norway - one mark silver would buy 6 to eight cows, while 8 marks would be the price of a nice farm) sømsmed a man who made nails for horseshoes. He might also change shoes and nails on horses sømand (see "sjømann") søn (see "sønn") (archaic) søndag Sunday søndre southern søner (see "sønner") plural of "sønn" sønn son sønne kjæreste The son's wife-to-be, but not yet married in church sønnedatter son's daughter sønner sons sønnesøn son's son sør south sørgrense southern border søsken siblings søslaget (see "sjøslaget") sødskende (see "søsken") søskenbarn niece, nephew, first cousin (female or male) søskenbarnet the first cousin søster sister søsterdatter sister's daughter, cousins søstersønn sister's son, cousins søt sweet, nice, pretty, cute søvverksarbei (see "sølvverksarbeider") så saw (see), so, if so, sow (seed) sådan such såkalt so called såkurv sowing basket således thus, in this or that såsom as, such as såvidt as far as
T. abbr. for "tellingssted" or "tellingskrets" tste abbr. for "tjeneste" ta to take tages is/are taken tab (see "tap") tak roof Tak og Farvel Thank you and Goodbye (memorial) takk thank you takk for maten is what everyone is supposted to say after a meal, and the host(ess) or the mother or whoever made the food, answers "vel bekomme" takksigelse thanksgiving takst rated value tale speech tall number, count tallet, 1800-tallet century, 19th century etc talrig (see "tallrik") tallrik numerous tambur drummer (soldier) tann tooth tannlege dentist tannlæge (see "tannlege") tanntekniker dental mechanic tante aunt tarm bowel, gut, intestine tarmslyng volvulus tap loss tapperhet courage tarmslyng volvulus tatt the perfect participle form of the Norwegian verb 'ta' or 'take', which means 'take' in English tatt av snøskred taken in avalanche taus quiet (see also "tøs") tautrekking means a tug-of-war, in other words a conflict teglverk brickworks teglbrander (see "teglbrænder) teglbrænder brick/tile burner and refers to one who tends the firing of bricks. tegnebok sketching book tegning drawing teig field on a farm teksel (see "bøkkerøks") teksle (see "bøkkerøks") tekstil textile tekstilarbeider textile worker tekstilingeniør textile engineer tekstilarbeider textile worker at the warehouse tele ground frost, frozen soil, frozen ground, frost, ice telefon telephone telegrafverket (see "televerket") telegrafist telegraphist, telegraph operator, radio operator telegrafistinde telegraphist, telegraph operator (female) Televerktet phone company in Norway, now named as Telenor tellinga literally means counting, but probably means census here. tellingstedet location of census, enumeration place tellingskrets location of census, enumeration place telt tent, marquee telthus tent house tempel temple, fane Tempelsvøben temple whip tenestejenta (see "tjenestejente") terne housemaid testamente last will testamentere bequeath tettsted community / densely populated area is a town-like place which does not qualify to be called a "by" in Norwegian. may consist of only a few houses, but still be considered as a sort of centre by people who live in the area. is also used about places like Sunndalsøra (pop. ca 5000), Orkanger (ca 4000), and Meråker (ca 2000), to mention a few. Americans (the ones I know, anyway) seem to call these places (small) towns. In Norway, a "tettsted" is part of a "kommune" - municiplaity - it is not a separate unit. texel (see "bødkerøks") Sheep from the Nederland ti ten tid time tidlig early tidligere earlier, prior tidsperiode period of time tidsskrift periodical tiend tithing, one tenth of ones's income or harvest, payable to the church tiende tenth, tithing tiener (see "tjener") tienestedreng (see "tjenestedreng") tienestepige (see "tjenestepike") tigger beggar til to, until, for til minne om in the memory of til sjøs at sea tilbage (see "tilbake") tilbake back, stay tilbakestående mentally retarded tilbringe spend one's time tilgang access, approach, admissions tilgjengelig assessible tilhøre belong to tilhørende belonging to tilhøve condition tilkjøpt (see "kjøpe til") tillatelse dispensation, permission tillegge ascribe to, attribute to, assign to tillit confidence tillysnings dagene days banns were read tilreisende visitor tilsett ved (see "ansatt ved") tilsist behind, last, at the end, finally tilstede present tilsynsmand supervisor tilstedeværende present tilsøs (see "til sjøs") tilvekst growth of some kind time hour timmermand (see "tømmermann") tine round or oval bentwood box, with handle on lid, which is closed by being pressed between two upright pieces of Wood, Pine bentwood Box melting ting thing; legislative or judicial Assembly (local, regional or national) tingbøker protocols from local meeting of juridical importance tinglag judicial district tinglyse public announcement of the existence of a written contract, prior to the contract being copied into the 'tingbok' - a book containing copies of such publicly announced documents. The past tense of tinglyse is tinglyst. The Tingbok is a very important source for Norwegian genealogy research. tingprovet evidence at court tinn pewter tinnfat pewter dish tinnknapper pewter buttons tinnvarer pewter tippe bet, do the pools, place a bet, make a bet tippoldefar great-great-grandfather tippoldemor great-great-grandmother tippoldeforeldre great-great-grandparents tirsdag Tuesday titel (see "tittel") (archaic) tittel title tiur wood grouse tj. (see "tjener" or "tjenestedreng" or "tjenestepige") tjene serve, work, earn tjener servant, waiter tjenerskatt in 1711 servant tax tjeneste service tjenestedreng servant, employee (male) tjenestefolk servants, either domestic or hired hands tjenesteforseelse service misconduct tjenestegut (see "tjenestegutt") tjenestegutt young male servant tjenesteiver eagerness to serve tjenestekarl male employee tjenestekone female servant tjenestejente young femal servant, maid tjenestepige (see "tjenestepike") tjenestepike servant, employee, maid (female), housemaid tjenestequinde servant (female) tjenestgjorde served tjente served, earned tjonn (see "tjønn") (dialekt) tjern pond, tarn, small lake tjue (tyve) twenty tjueen twenty-one tjuefem twenty-five tjuefire twenty-four tjuende twentieth tjueni twenty-nine tjueseks twenty-six tjuesju twenty-seven tjueto twenty-two tjuetre twenty-three tjueåtte twenty-eight tjønn (see "tjern") nn to two to i spann two in tow toetasjers two story (building9 tog train tohundre two-hundred tok took told (see "toll") Toldrorskarl man who rowed the boat(s) for the custom service. The custom service always had boats and rowers ready to get fast out and inspect the ships coming into harbour (before they could bring anything ashore). toll customs tollbetjent customs officer tollekniv sheath knife tollverket customs department tolv twelve tolvte twelfth tommar (see "tommer") tommer inches tommermand (see "tømmermann") tomset half-witted tomsing half-wit, fool, jerk tomt lot (of land) tomtearbeider working at building sites tomansbruk a semi-detached farm, perhaps owned by a single individual, but used simultaneously by two different farmers torp common ending of farm and village names (swedish), se also Swedish dictionary torsdag Thursday tre three the number three wood traevirke (see "trevirke") traesliberiarbeider (see "tresliperiarbeider") traersker (see "tresker") tran cod liver oil tranbrænderi (see "tranbrenneri") tranbrenneri trau trough tredde tredje third tredve thirty trefningene the engagements trekkegarn drawnet Trekkspill Pictures and information about Trekkespill (Accordion family) trelast load of lumber trelastvirksomhed lumber firm tremassefabrikk pulp factory tremenning second cousins trenagler wooden nail, wooden peg, wooden pin (used for fastening planks) treskjemaskin threshing machine treskje thresh, threshing spoon made of wood tresko Wooden shoes tresker thresher tresliperi pulp mill tresliperiarbeider a worker in a pulp mill tretten thirteen trettende thirteenth tretti thirty trettien thirty-one trevarer wooden items treverk things made out of tree trevirke woodworking trol. (see "trolovelse") trolig probably trollat to be mischievous trollpakk pack of trolls naughty children trollskap witchcraft trolove betroth, engage trolovelse betrothment, engagement (This is a public announcement (in church) of betrothal was a legal requirement. Without it you could not marry. I think these lasted until late 1800 or even early 1900's.) trolovet (see "forlovet") trosbekjennelse creed trossamf (abbreviation for " Trossamfund") trossamfunn religious belief, Religious community trulig (See "trolig") (nn) træsliberi (see "tresliperi") træsliberiearbeider (see "tresliperiarbeider") trædreier wood turner (as with a lathe) træfningerne (see "trefningene") Træfningen ved ... the military action at ... træk to draw træsliberi pulp mill Trønder a native of Trøndelag trøye jacket, vest trådte stepped over tuberkulose tuberculosis, consumption tuft site, homestead tugthus (see "tukthus") (archaic) tukthus prison tulft old currency, see Old measurements tungarbeid heavy work tunet the courtyard tusen thousand tuskhandel barter tusle patter, walk gently tuslede weak, shaky tusmørke dusk, twilight tussefløyte (see "fløyte") tvangsfange prisoner (at hard labor) tvangsarbeide hard labor, forced labor tvende twain, the same as two (archaic) tvilling twin tyende female servant (archaic) tyfus typhoid fever typograf typographer tysk German tyskertøs German tart, Jerry tart Tyskland Germany tyv thief tyve twenty tyvende twentieth tæle (see "tele") tændestik (see "fyrstikker") (danish) tæring galloping tuberculosis, which brought death very fast tømmer lumber, timber tømmerarbeider worker on lumber tømmerbygning timberhouse tømmerflaader (see "tømmerfløter") tømmerfløyter (see "tømmerfløter") tømmerfløter log driver, riverd river tømmerfløting river driving of logs tømmerhugger logger tømmerfut the saw-mill owner's A representative/law clerk supervising timber cutting, marking and transport. A "tømmerfut" in a town is the crown's representative who also puts a price on the timber the crown wants to buy. tømmermand (see "tømmermann") tømmermann carpenter, framer, timber cruiser tømmerstova (see "tømmerstuen") tømmerstuen log cabin, house tønne barrel; In 1801 the barrels was made of wooden straps. The wooden straps was made of a half of a thin branch and in the ends were made like some kind of hooks so they could be hooked together. tønnefabrikk barrel factory tønnestavar barrel staves. tørke drought tørrfisk usually cod, dried in open air without salt, usually hung on "hjeller", see also "lutefisk" tøes (see "tyende") tøs (see "tyende") tå from (nn) toe