pants.                  abbr. for "pantsette"
pd.                     abbr. for "pund"
pg.                     abbr. for "pige"
pk.                     abbr. for "pike"
prb.                    abbr. for "prestebol"
prgj.                   abbr. for "prestegjeld"
paaliggende             (see "pålagt")
paarørande              (see "pårørande")
paaske                  (see "påske")
paaskjønnelse           (see "påskjønnelse")
pagina (Latin)          page
paktar                  (see "forpakter")
pakkhusarbeider         warehouse worker
pallemanckes skiørt     (Kalemankes skiørt) silken skirt, the surface of the silk 
                        cloth was cured
                        with fir juice to achieve a special effect
pant                    mortage, collateral for a loan
pantebok                mortgage record
                        a chronological protocol where deeds,
                        contracts and other documents of juridical
                        and economic importance for the farms in
                        a parish/kommune where recorded or referred
pantepengene            the mortgange money
panteregister           an index to a "pantebok" where the
                        information is ordered by farm number
pantsette               mortage, give as collateral for a loan
parsell                 plot of  land
part                    part
parykkmaker             wigmaker
passe                   mind, watch, look after, take care of, tend
pastor                  vicar, minister
pave                    pope
penger                  money
pengemangel             scarcity of money
pengenød                need for money
pension                 (see "pensjon")
pensjon                 pension
pensjonering            retirement
pensjonær               boarder
pensjonist              retired person
pention                 (see "pensjon")
pepperkaker             gingerbread cookies, gingersnap
pepper                  pepper
pepperbøsse             pepperbox
pergament               parchment, vellum
perle                   pearl
permisjon               leave of absence
permitert               be on leave
persesylte              mock brawn, Head Cheese, collared head
person                  person
personnr                persons number
pest                    plague
pige                    (see "pike") (archaic)(danish)
pike                    girl, maid
                        umarried female
                        female domestic servant
pikebarn                female child
pikenavn                maiden name
pinse                   Pentecost, Whitsun, White Sunday
pk.                     abbr. for "pike"
p.                      abbr. for "pike" (often for unmarried female)
planlegging             planning, organizing
plante                  plant
plads                   (see "husmannsplass") (archaic)
pladser                 (plural of plads)
pladsbrugerske          female user of the farm
pladsmann               (see "husmann") (archaic)
pladsmandsdatter        the daughter of a cottar
pladsmannsson           (see "husmannsønn") (archaic)
plassmannssønn          (see "husmannsønn") (archaic)
plass                   (see "husmannsplass")
plassen ble nedlagt     farm remained neglected or vacant (in other words no one 
                        took it over at that time)
plassmann               (see "husmann")
platearbeider           sheet metal worker
pleie                   nursing, care
                        look after, nurse, take care of
                        be accustomed, be used to
pleie- og aldershjem    nursing and old people's home
pleiebarn               (see "foster barn")
pleiedtr                (see "pleiedatter")
pleiedatter             foster daughter
pleiefar                foster father
pleieforeldre           foster parents
pleiemor                foster mother
pleiehjem               nursing home
pleieassistent          nursing assistant, care assistant
pleiepersonale          nursing staff
pleiestiftelse          nursing home or orphanage, depending on other information 
                        in the context.
                        An institution where care and attention was given to persons 
                        who needed it.
                        It is an old-fashioned word, not used in Norwegian anymore. 
                        The word gives a hint of charity.
pleiesønn               (see "foster son")
plejesøn                (see "pleiesønn") (archaic)
plog                    a plow
politi                  police
politiker               politician
polske                  Polish
post                    mail
postaabner              (see "poståpner")
postbud                 (see "postmann")
postfart                served the postdistribution
postkonvensjen          postal practices agreement
postmann                mailman, mail carrier
postmester              postmaster
poststyrer              postmaster on a small postoffice
poståpner               the person who takes care of the mail on a small rural place
potet                   potato
pottemaker              potter
praest                  (see "prest")
praktstykke             (see "prakteksemplar")
prakteksemplar          magnificent specimen
predike                 preacher
prædiken                sermon, speech
preses                  pesident, chairman
prest                   minister, priest, clergyman
presteattest            Attest from the minister
prestebol               land belonging to a parish, usually refers to the farm 
                        house where the priest lived (the vicarage)
prestegaard             (see "prestegård")
prgj.                   abbr. for Prestegjeld
prestegjeld             clerical district, parish; see The Norwegian Church
                        several "prestegjeld" makes one "prosti"
                        A ecclesiastical district of administration
                        which comprises two or more sub-parishes ("sogn"), 
                        headed by a rector.
prestegård              minister's farm and farmhouse, rectory, vicarage, parsonage
preussiske              Prussian
primstav                clog almanac
prins                   prince
prinsesse               princess
privat                  private
privatlaerer            (see "privatlærer")
privatlærer             private teacher, tutor
privet                  toilet
producerede             produced
prost                   dean besides being a parish clergy, senior rector, senior 
                        priest who supervised the priests in
                        the subparishes
prosti                  Several "prosti" make one "bispedømme"
protokoll               minutes, written log
provst                  (see "prost")
præst                   (see "prest")
præstegjeld             (see "prestegjeld")
pund                    old measurement 1 pund = 6 kilogram
pølsemaker              sausage maker
pølsemagersvend         journeyman to a sausage maker
på                      on, at, upon
på 1700-tallet          in the 1700's
påført                  added
pålagt                  imposed
pårørande               relation, relative, next of kin, The bereaved family
påske                   Easter
påskebrun               easter tan
påskjønnelse            acknowledgement, appreciation, bonus, reward
påskudd                 pretext, pretence, excuse
påtegnet                annotated



quinde                   (see "kvinne") (archaic)
quinder                  (see "kvinner") (archaic)
Qvindemennske            female people



res.                    abbr. for "resolusjon"
radiotelegrafist        radio operator, wireless operator
rbdl.                   abbr. for "riksbankdalar"
rdl.                    abbr. for "riksdalar"
randet                  striped
rasande                 furious
raspeball               potato dumpling
realeksamen             (might bee "realskoleeksamen"
realskole               secondary school, junior high school
realskoleeksamen        now called "ungdomsskoleenksamen (10th grade); 
                        "equal" to the English "lower secondary school"
realregister            real estate registry
redaktør                chief editor
reder                   shipowner
rederi                  shipline
redningskoite           (see "redningsskøyte")
redningsskøyte          lifeboat, rescue boat, rescue vessel
redningssentral         rescue centre, rescue co-ordination centre
                        US: rescue center, rescue coordination center, rescue 
                        operations center
Redningstjenesten       Rescue Service
redningsvest            life jacket, safety jacket, safety vest
regimentsfeldtskær      Regimental Field Surgeon
regimentkameater        regimental comrades/colleagues
regiment kvartermester  regimental quarter master, an officer in charge of supplies.
register                index, register
registrert              registered
regjering               government
regning                 bill
regning                 do arithmetic/mathematical
reier                   (see "reder") nn
                        cavalcade, company on horseback
                        convey on horseback
                        company of riders on horseback
regnskap                account
reinsdyr                reindeer
reise                   to travel
                        raise (reise et spørsmål = raise a question)
                        to erect get up  (reise seg)
                        a journey
reisedato               departure date
reisemål                destination
reiser til sin mand     travel to her husband
reisetid                travelling time
reisetill.              permission to travel i.e. emigrate
rejese                  (see "reise")
rekke                   row, line
rekkje                  (see "rekke")
rekning                 arithmetic. math
rekna                   arithmetic, math
reknast                 accounted as
rektor                  headmaster, school Principal
religion                religion
reluitionsretten        (see "gjenskjøpsretten")
rengjøring              cleaning
rennende                running as in "running water"
rentenist               rentier, person of independent means
reparatør               repairer, mender, repairman
representant            representative
repslager               ropemaker
resolusjon              resolution
resterende              the remaining
restparten              the remaining portion
restsattt               tax due
rett                    court
                        right, correct
rettferdig              just, righteous
rettsak                 law suit
rettsleg                legal
revisor                 auditor
                        Rheumatism. chronic med Diarrhoe
                        Chronic rheumatism with diarrhea
ridder                  knight
ride                    ride
rig                     (see "rik") (archaic)
rik                     wealthy
rikeste mann            the richest man
riksbankdalar           old measurement
riksdalar               old measurement
Rikstrygdeverket        Norwegian State Social Security Office
Rigstelegrafen'         (see 'Releverket')
riktig                  correct
ridende                 (see "rennende")
ring                    poor quality, used to describe fields
ring inntekt            poor income
Ritmester               (see "Rittmester")
Rittmester              Cavalry Captain
rode                    (see "rote")
roeskarl                (see "roerskarl")
roskarl                 (see "roerskarl")
roerskarl               oarsman, row-man
rokk                    Spinning wheels, see Spinning wheels
rorbu                   fishermen's cabins
rosstjeneste            military service on horseback
   rostjeneste          military service on horseback
   rostieniste          tax which funded the military horsemen
rotbryter               (see "stubbebryter")
rote                    smallest subdivision of a conscription district
                        a group of farms which kept up a section of the road 
                        by work in kind; he section of the road itself
rug                     rye (the grain)
rulle                   list, roll
rullepølse              Spiced Meat Roll
                        see also Preserving our Norwegian heritage...
rumpetroll              tadpole, baby frogs
rundt                   around
rutebil                 bus, coach
rydde                   clear
rydning                 clearing
rydningsmannen          the pioneer (the original clearer of land)
rydningsrøyser          pile of stone on a clearing (the clearing being made by 
                        placing the stones in piles
rydningsstykke          A small place of land that was cleared by the pioneer
rykke                   advance (also other meanings depending on context)
rytter                  cavalryman
rømme                   run away, desert, escape, leave, quit
rømmegrøt               cream pudding
rønningen               (see "rydningen")
røttene                 roots
rørlegger               plumber
røykstove               smoke house (mostly used for smokin (curing) meat and fish), 
                        but also the room in the house (stue) where the men retired 
                        after dinner to have their cigarettes.
røys                    stone pile, heap of stones
råd                     advice
råde                    connecting rod, con-rod
                        advise, recommend, caution
                        prevail, command, rule, be master
råde bygselen           decide or prevail the renting
rådhus                  city hall
rådmann                 councilman
rådstuearkiv            local courts archive /courthouse archive
rå for                  be master of, have control of
rår                     present tense of the verb "rå"



s.                      abbr. for "sønn" or "samme", depending on context
s.å.                    abbr. for "samme år"
ss                      abbr. for "Spiseskje"
sk.                     abbr. for "skøyte"
skld.                   abbr. for "skylddalar"
skill.                  abbr. for "skilling"
skmk.                   abbr. for "skyldmark"
spd.                    abbr. for "speciedalar"
St.                     abbr. for "Sancte"
s.k.                    abbr. for "såkalt"
sa                      said, stated
sabbat                  Sabbath
sadelmager mester       master saddlemaker. 
sadelmagerlærling       saddlemaker's apprentice
saeter                  (see "seter")
sag                     saw
                        (see "sak")
saga                    saga (see "historie") b.m.
sagde                   (see "sa")
sagen                   the saw
                        (see "saken") nn (archaic)
sagarbeider             working at a sawmill
sagbruk                 sawmill
sagbrukseier            sawmill owner
sagbrugsarbeider        sawmill worker
sagmester               master sawmiller
sagnet                  legend, myth
sak                     case
saken                   the case
sakfører                (see "advorkat")
salig                   deceased, holy, blessed
salmaker                saddle maker
salmebok                hymn book
salt                    salt
sambo                   monoecious, synoecious
                        (see "samboer")
samboende               cohabiting
samboer                 cohabitee, common-law wife/husband
                        live-in (boyfriend/girlfriend)
                        legal form for person to live together, even if they 
                        have children
samboerforhold          equal to "non-marital" or "extra-marital cohabitation"
                        common-law marriage
sambt                   together with
same                    same
                        a Lapp (nomadic people in nothern Norway)
sammets                 certain quaity of silk
samfunn                 society
samisk                  Lapp (nomodic people in northern Norway)
samisk fastboende       samic, residential
samisk, nomade          samic, nomadic
samleie                 intercourse
samman                  together (nn)
sammanboende            (see "sambo")
samme                   same
samme dag               the same day
samme år                same year
sammen                  together
sammested               same place
samstundes              same time
samtlige                all
samtykke                consent, agreement
sars                    cotton
                        Sars or 'sarses' is also called 'sakses' = fabric woven of 
                        Saxon wool.
sat smått i det         was doing poorly
sat tungt i det         "Had a hard time" or "difficult times" 
                        (related to the economical situation of the person(s) in mind)
sau                     sheep
sauehus                 sheep stalls
scibred                 (see "skipreide")
s.b.                    (see "samboer")
se                      to see
se også                 refer to
seg                     oneself, himself, herself
seg selv                in itself
segni                   (see "sagnet")(archaic)
seieren                 the victor
seil                    sail
seile                   to sail
seilboat                sailboat
seildukmaker            canvasmaker
seilmager               sailmaker
seilte                  sailed
seinare                 (see "senere") (nn)
sekretær                secretary
seks                    six
seksten                 sixteen
sekstende               sixteenth
seksti                  sixty
sekstiende              sixtieth
selde                   (see "selgde") (nn)
selgde                  sold
selge                   sell
seljefløyte             willow flute or willow pipe (see also "fløyte")
                        How to make Seljefølyte
selv                    self
selveier                owner, freeholder, 
                        se also Norwegian farms - some background informationselveier
selvejer                (see "selveier")
selvmord                suicide
senere                  later
seng                    bed
sengeliggende           bedridden
separeret               separated
september               September
sereige                 (see "Særeie") (nn)
sersjant                sergeant
seter                   summer cabin with grazing land in the mountains,
sia                     later on, thereafter (nn)
side                    page, side
sidehus                 side house
siden                   since, later
sidenummer              page number
sidemummer i kilden     Page in the source
sielffuer               (see "seg selv")
siktebrød               Norwegian Rye bread
sild                    herring
sildaeventyret          herring adventure 
                        (an advebture with huge quantity of herring in fishing)
sildearbeide            herring processing, packing, salting etc
silingsbøtter           milk buckets
sitt                    his, her, hers, its, their, theirs
sin                     her, his, hers, its
sine                    their, theirs
sindelag                disposition, temper, perperament, sentiment, opinion
sinnskrise              nervous breakdown
sindsvag                (see "sinnsvak") (archaic)
sinnsvak                insane, retarded
sinnsyk                 mentally ill, mad
sinnsykehus             insane saylum, madhouse
sinnssykasyl            (see "sinnsykehus")
sinssyk                 lunatic
sirs                    cotton
siselørlærling          engraver  apprentice
siste                   last, latter
siste olje              last rites
sidstnævntes            last mentioned
sidstenæmntes           (see "sidstnævntes")
sitte løst              be easy to get, be easy to obtain 
sitte ned               sit down, take a seat 
sivstand                (see "sivilstand")
sivilstand              marital status (g = Gift = M =married; ug = Ugift = 
                        e = enke/enkeman = widow/er)
sjauer                  dockhand or worker, longshoreman or stevedor
sjef                    chief, manager
sjeleregistrer          early parish register
                        a type of census that was done by the minister to enumerate 
                        all the residents of the parish. They are typically by gård 
                        and bruk and included husmann plasser. During the 1700's many 
                        of the census information only includes males and did not 
                        cover the entire family.
                        The sjeleregister included women, children and hired hands
sjette                  sixth
sjo                     (see "sjø") also for other word starting with "sjo"
sjokadett               (see "sjøkadett")
sju                     (see "syv") (nn)
sjuende                 seventh
sjuk                    (see "syk") (nn)
sjukdom                 (see "sykdom") (nn)
sjuårskrigen            the seven year long (1563-1570) inter-Nordic war between 
                        Sweden and the countries of Norway-Denmark, Poland and Lübeck. 
                        A Peace treaty was signed at Stettin in 1570. 
                        Sweden had occupied Jemtland and Herjedalen (Norway), 
                        while Norway-Denmark took Alvsborg (Sweden).
                        Sweden had to return their occupations and cede Gotland and 
                        pay Ransom for Alvsborg.
sjø                     sea, lake
sjøaure                 salmon trout
sjøbruk                 (see "havbruk")
sjøfarende              sea faring, seaman, sailor
sjøfart                 navigation shipping
sjøfløyte               (see "fløyte")
sjøfolk                 seaman
sjøforklaring           maritime declaration
sjøgang                 heavy sea
sjøhus                  quayside room
sjøkadett               naval cadet
sjøkaptein              captain on a vessel
sjøl                    (see "selv")
sjømand                 (see "sjømann")
sjømands.....           (see "sjømanns...")
sjømann                 sailor, seaman
sjømannshjem            sailor's home
sjømannskirke           seamen's church
sjømerke                seamark, beacon, navigation mark, buoy
sjømil                  nautical mile
sjøorm                  sea serpent
sjøreise                voyage
sjørett                 maritime court
sjøslaget               the naval battle
sjå                     (see "se")
                        might also be a small house (nn)
sjåfør                  driver
skaffar                 (see "skaffer")
skaffer                 to provide for, obtain
skal                    shall, must
skalk                   outside slice, first cut (of a loaf)
                        bowler hat
skalke                  batten down the hatches
skalkeskjul             blind, cover
skall                   shell, test
skalp                   scalp
skalpell                scalper, scalpel  (med.)
skamfere                spoil, damage
skarlangensfeber        scarlet fever
skarp                   scrap
skarpretter             executioner, hangman
skarpskytter            sharpshooter
skatt                   tax
                        you have paid tax for each payment from your employer 
                        (he send it to the authorities) after a table made up by 
                        the goverment the year before.
                        On your tax return it will show if this prepayment is Ok, 
                        or less or to high, then you either get a bill for the 
                        rest (3 weeks to pay or a Nice payback with a low interest 
                        (do not save your money here!)
skatt og avgift         tax and duty/fee
skattefut               tax collector, (the) taxman
skatteinnkreving        tax collection
skattelister            tax registers, taxation roll
Skattemanntall          census like listing of persons subjected to pay taxes
skattematrikkel         written tax roll, register
skatteregel             tax rule
skattesats              tax rate
skattetakst             valuation of property for rating purposes
skaut                   headscarf, square, kerchief
skautut                 with a white head (about manimals)
skeiser                 (see "skjøyter")
skemaker                (see "skjemaker") (archaic)
skib                    (see "skip") (archaic)
skibsfører              ship's captain (archaic)
skieløber               (see "skiløper")
skifte                  Norwegian skifter -- Probate Records (John Follesdal) 
                        by John Follesdal
                        Division of an estate
skifteattest            certificate of probate
skiftebøker             probate protocols
skifteprotokoll         probate record book / estate inventory
skifteregister          probate register
skifterettsdommer       probate judge
skifteretten            probate court
skiftesamling           meeting of all heirs and beneficiaries
skiftetvist             probate action
skild                   (see "skilt")
skilde                  divorce, partition, subdivide
skille                  to divorce, partition, subdivide
skilling                old currency, see Old measurements
skilsmisse              divorce
skilt                   divorced
skilting                signposting
skiløber                (see "skiløper")
skiløper                infantry soldier on skis
skinn                   skin (f.eks. human skin, the skin of a calf 
                        (, a shark, a sheep, a snake))
skinnfell               skin rug
skip                    ship, vessel
skipreide               military district (archaic)
skipper                 skipper, master mariner
skipperborger           shippmaster and citezen, belonging to a social layer 
                        above the working class
skipsbygger             ship builder
Skipsopplysningsregister  =   Ship Supply Information Register
skipstømmermann         carpenter onboard a ship
skjedde                 happened
skjemaker               a man making spoons
skjorte                 shirt
skjut                   mare
                        (see "Skaut")
skjærer                 cutting something to smaller pieces
Skjærtorsdag            Good Thursday
skjønnsforretning       appraisal, valuation
skjønnsretten           the appraisal or valuation court
skjøte                  deed (property) (nn)
skjøyta                 (see "skøyte")
skjøyte                 ice skates
                        (see "skjøte")
                        boat, read fiskeskjøte = fishingboat
sko                     shoes
skoemager               (see "skomaker") (archaic)
skomager                (see "skomaker")
skog                    forest
skogdrift               forestry, forest management
skogholt                grove, spinney
skogsarbeider           limberjack, logger, forestworker
skogfut                 forest bailiff?
skoghogger              (see "skogsarbeider")
skogridder              forest manager
skogtømmer              forest timber
skogvokter              forester
skole                   school
skolebarn               school child (student)
skolediscipel           pupil
skoledistrict           (see "skoledistrikt")
skoledistrikt           school district
skoleholder             schoolmaster, teacher
                        in early times, the owner of the place where the school 
                        was held.
skolekorps              school's marching band
skolemester             schoolmaster
skolestue               the small building used for school
skolestyre              school board
skomager                (see "skomaker") (archaic)
skomagerdreng           shoemaker apprentice
skomagersvend           (see "skomakersvenn")
skomaker                shoemaker
skomakermester          master shoemaker
skomakersvenn           shoemaker journeyman
skoskatt                in 1711  shoe tax
skoten                  (see "skutt")
skov                    (see "skog")
skovarbeider            (see "skogsarbeider")
skovhugger              (see "skogsarbeider") (archaic)
skovvokter              (see "skogvokter"
skovridder              (see "skogridder")
skrabhandler            (see "skraphandler")
skraeder                (see "skredder") (archaic)
skraedder               (see "skredder")
skraphandler            scrap dealer in junk metals, etc
skredder                tailor
skreddermester          master tailor
skreddersvend           apprentice tailor
skreppe                 bag, knapsack
                        (about girls) bird, piece, bint
skreppehandel           pedlary
skreppekar              pedlar, peddler
skriftlige              written
skriftlig               writing
skrin                   small chest
skrivekar               (see "kontorist") (archaic)
skriver                 scribe (writer)
skrædder                (see "skredder") (archaic)
Skrædderm.              (see "skreddermester)
skræddemester           (see "skreddermester")
skræddersvend           (see "skreddersvend")
skude                   (see "skute")
skyds                   (see "skyss") (archaic)
skudsmålsbog            servant's conduct book
skuld                   (see "skyld") (archaic)
skulle                  should
skurekone               cleaning woman
skuronne                the harvest time
skute                   small ship
skutt                   shot
skyld                   debt
                        tax, (especially real estate tax, see "landskyld")
                        a measure for evaluation of ground, and this is the 
                        explanation for the word "skylddeling".
skylddeling             (land) survey (in USA?)
skylddalar              taxes owed in "dalar"
skyldfri                (about property) unencumbered
                        innocent, blameless, guiltless, chaste, pure
                        debtless, free from debt
skyldmark               taxes owed in "mark"
skyldsatt               appraised and split of from another property - 
                        and given a relative value in the land registry system
skyldsetning            taxation, assessment
skyldskap               relationship
skyldspørsmål           question of guilt
skynde på noen          hustle el. hurry somebody
skynde seg              hurry
skynde seg å            hasten to, lose no time in
skyss                   conveyance (transport of travelers by horse or boat)
skysset henne av sted   they bundled her off
skyssgodtgjørelse       travel allowace
skysshest               post-horse
skysspenger             fare
skyss-skaffar           a person who provides for transport/conveyance
skysstasjon             posting station, posting inn, coaching inn
skyssvogn               stagecoach, post chaise (was also used to take post 
                        and human)
skyte                   shoot
skærpedes               is sharpened
skøyte                  boat
                        (see "skjøte")
skøytebok               register of transfers of ownership of real estate
skålgrop                cup hole
skårunge                the first year boys in the Lofoten fisheries
slag                    blow
                        stroke, apolectic stroke
                        military battle
slagbenk                bench which opens into a bed (Haugen)
slegfredbarn            child of unmarried parents, 
                        born outside marriage, also called "uægte"/"uekte"
slagter                 (see "slakter")
slakt                   meat, slaughtered animals
slakte                  to butcher
slakter                 butcher
slarv                   idle gossip, tattle
slarva ut               did not take care of their property
slave                   a prisoner sentenced to hard labour
slegfreddatter          extramatarial daughter.
slekt                   relatives, family, lineage
slekten                 the family, lineage
slektninger             relatives
slektsforskning         genealogy
slektsgren              branch, line of a family
slektshistorie          family history, genealogy
                        lineage books
slektsnavn              family name, surname
slektsvåpen             family coat of arms
slik                    thus, in this way
slott                   castle, palace
slottsmenight           the parish associated with the castle area
slyng                   loop, winding, turn
slægten                 (see "slekten") (archaic)
slægtfred               slegfred
slå                     thrash, beat, flog
slå ihjel               kill
slått                   mowing hay
slotten                 the haying (cutting, mowing); the hayfield
slåttonn                mowing season
smaabruk                (see "småbruk") (archaic)
smaafæ                  (see "småfe") (archaic)
smak                    taste
smale                   (see "sau")
smed                    blacksmith
smedlærling             blacksmith apprentice
smedmester              master blacksmith
smie                    forge, smithy
smykke                  jewelry, ornament, piece of jewelry
smør                    butter
smørambarar             buttercups
småfe                   usually means calves, sheep and goats
                        but used as a common term for cloven-hoofed animals
småbruk                 small farm
småbruker               a farmer of a small farm
småkrøtter              (see "småfe")
småkveg                 (see "småfe")
snart                   soon
snarrådig               resourceful
snedker                 (see "snekker")
snedker for egen regningself-employed cabinet maker
snekker                 (funiture-) cabinetmaker, (timber-)carpenter, (house-) joiner
snikkar                 (see "snekker")
snøskred                avalanche
snædker                 (see "snekker")
soeksende               (see "søsken")
sofarende               (see "sjøfarende")
soga                    (see "historie") n.n.
soge                    (see "historie") n.n.
sogn                    subparish, see The Norwegian Church
                        A ecclesiastical district of administration, headed by a curate.
sogneprest              subparish priest
                        A rector is the head of a parish (prestegjeld) 
                        and a senior official (subordinated a bishop).
sokn                    (see "sogn") (archaic)
sokneprest              (see "sogneprest") (archaic)
Solbær-syltetøy         Black currant (jam)
sols                    sieve (?) for barley, a throe with small holes in it
soldat                  soldier, probably an infantryman.
soldat i borgerkrigen   soldier in the Civil war
soldag u.k.             soldier under command
solgt                   sold
soleis                  (see "slik")
som                     who, which, that
som det sig sømmede     which was appropriate, suitable (for a person of her social class)
somand                  (see "sjømann")
sommer                  summer
son                     (see "sønn")  (archaic)
sonnedatter             (see "sønnedatter")
sonneson                (see "sønnesønn")
Sonnesøs                grandchild
soremand                (see "sjømann") misspelling
sorenskriver            magistrate, probate judge, 
                        see Norwegian skifter -- Probate Records (John Follesdal)
sort                    black
sose bort               blunder away
sosialkurator           social worker, welfare officer
sosialsjef              director of social services
spann                   bucket (old measurement) (18 kg of butter)
                        team of horses, oxes, dogs
spannsteigflekket       a patch of land that would pay 1 spann,annual land rent.
spanskesjuka            (see "spankesyken")
spanskesyken            Spanish flu
sparke                  to kick
spark                   (see "sparkstøtting")
sparkstøtting           chair sledge
spebarn                 infant, baby
spedalsk                leprous
spedkalv                (see "spekalv")
spekalv                 sucking calfs
spekekjøtt              hung beef
spekelår                mutton ham
spekelår                mutton ham
spekemat                cured meat, dried meat
spekesild               salt herring
spenne                  buckle, clasp
                        stretch, strain, tighten, strap
speciedaler             old currency, see Old measurements before 1875
spillemann              musician, fiddler
spillesykja             leprosy
spinderiarbeider        spinning mill worker
spinderske              (see "spinnerske")
spinding                (see "rokk")
spinnerske              female spinner
spiseskje               litteraly "eating spoon" = metric value of 15 millilitres 
                        (15/1000 litre).
spisestue               dining room
spiseværet              (see " spisevært")
spisevært               landlord, host of a dinner establishment, eating house keepe
spiskam                 (see "spiskammer")
spiskammer              pantry, larder
spiseskje               tablespoon
                        tablespoonful (measure)
sprit                   alcohol
språk                   language
ss                      abbr. for "spiseskje"
st.                     abbr. for "Student"
stabbur                 storehouse on pillars
stabburet               the storehouse
stad                    town
stader                  (see steder")
stadfeste               If this occur in connection with a baptism, 
                        it tells that the child has first been baptized at home.
                        We can say it is verifying a bapt/Chr, done outside church 
                        (at home/hospital etc).
                        This was most probably because the child was very ill and 
                        in danger of dying, and a month later the child baptism 
                        was confirmed by the minister in church in a special ceremony.
                        This still happens sometimes,
                        you know. Sometimes new-born babies are baptized in hospital, 
                        too, if there are complications.
                        (A few gen. program has this as event)
stadfestelse            (see "stadfeste")
Stadthauptmand          every city of some size had a so-called "borgergarde" - 
                        citizens military corps. The Stadthauptmand was its commanding officer
stald                   (see "stald")
staldkarl               stall groom
stall                   barn, stable, usually a (horse)stable
stamfar                 progenitor
stamgods                inherited property/estate
stamrulle               basic list used by the militay to adjust their own list 
                        over possible soldiers, passed on list from the church
stamtavle               descendancy chart, ancestry table
stand                   social position
                        Start med bilde nr start with picture number
stasjonsmester          station master or manager (at the raiload)
staten                  the national government
statsarkivet            National archives
statsalmenning          government common lands
statsbanene             (see "NSB")
statsborgerskap         citizenship
statsminister           prime minister
stattholder             governor, viceregent
staup                   drinking cup, goblet
staut kar               fine fellow, stalwart fellow
stavafabrikken          stave factory
stavkirke               stave church
stebarn                 step child
stebror                 step brother
sted                    place, location
steder                  places, locations
stedatter               stepdaughter
stedsnavn               name of location
stefar                  step father
stefne                  (see "Stevne")
stefning                (see "stevning")
stefnemaal              (see "stevnemål")
stenarbeider            (see "steinarbeider")
steinarbeider           stoneworker
steler for ....         (see "steller for ...")
steller for .....       keeps house for ......
stenarbeider            stone quarry worker
stenhugger              (see "steinhogger")
steinbrot               (see "steinbrudd")
steinbrudd              stone quarry, quarry
steinhogger             stone cutter
steinsetjingar          (see "steinsetting")
steinsetting            pavement, stone pitching, riprap
stemets                 certain quaity of silk
stemmeberettiget        qualified to vote
stemor                  step mother
stervboe                (see "dødsbo") might be done as a connection to the German word 
                        "sterben" = to die
stesønn                 step-son
stesøster               step-sister
stevning                summons
stevne                  summon
stevnemøte              to make a date
stevnemål               suit
stevnevitne             process-server, bailiff
stifdatter              (see "stedatter")
stifson                 (see "stesønn")
stiffson                (see "stesønn")
stiffsøn                (see "stesønn")
stift                   diocese (archaic)
                        There is more than one church in a parish and more
                        than one parish in a stift.
                        A higher level in the Lutheran organization.
Stiftskriver            an official ("embetsmann") of whom there was one in every len or 
                        (after 1660) amt.
                        His job was to control or keep track of the church wardens 
                        ("kirkeverge") of whom there was one in every parish. 
                        The church wardens handled the properties and incomes of 
                        the churches.
stifterlseslem          a person that receive support from a "stiftelser"
stiftelse               a foundation, probably local, established by some wealthy 
                        person or diocese to aid the poor and ill
stiger                  forman of miners
stilling                status, position, occupation
stipendium              scholarship
stiv heks               (grandmother's footsteps (game)
stokkfisk               (see "tørrfisk")
stor                    large
storfe                  cattle
storkveg                cattle (nn)
storlevande             (see "Storfe")
stort konjakkglass      (se "drink")
stova                   (see "stue")
stove                   small house or cottage where the people are living (nn)
stovehus                The house where people are living
straebsom               (see "strevsom")
straff                  punishment
straffange              prisoner
straks                  right away, immediately
strand                  beach
strandsidd              (see "strandsitter")
strandsitjarar          (see "strandsitter")
strandsitter            person who rented a house on a larger farm near or at
                        the coastline, see also "husmann"
strev                   toil, labour
strevsom                hardworking
strax                   (see "straks")
stridighed              (see "stridighet")
stridighet              stubborness, willfulness. conflict, dispute, controversy
stridt                  difficult
strikkerske             a knitter
strikking               knitting
strubehoste             (see "strupehoste")
strupehoste             croup
strygerske              ironer, female
strykepike              ironing (laundry) maid
stræbsom                (see "strevsom")
stubbebryter            stump puller
student                 student
stue                    a small house, cottage
                        a room in the house, living room, ward (at hospital)
                        stow (in shipping)
stuer                   stevedore (in shipping)
stuepike                parlourmaid, housemaid (in a home)
                        chambermaid  (at a hotel)
stuert                  steward
stugu                   (see "stue")
stum                    mute (can't speak)
stuver                  (see "stuer")
stygg                   ugly
stykkson                (see "stesønn")
stykson                 (see "stesønn")
stuttmål                (see "korthet") (nn)
stygg                   ugly  (look like)
                        bad, nasty, ugly, foul  (behave)
styrer                  ruler, director
styrmand                (see "stymann")
styrmann                ships mate
stæedatter              (see "stedatter")
støbe                   (see "støpe")
støber                  (see "støper")
støper                  (see "støperiarbeider")
støberiarbeider         (see "støperiarbeider")
støpe                   casting or concrete (often metal in a foundry)
støperiarbeider         foundryworker, foundryman
støl                    (see "seter")
største                 largest
støype                  (see " støpe") (nn)
står                    stands
står skrevet            to be written
sukker                  sugar
Sukkersyge              (see "sukkersyke")
sukkersjuke             (see "sukkersyke")
sukkersyke              diabetes
summa (Latin)           totals
summarisk               statistical, summary
surrekopp               buzzhead, "muddle-headed" or restless kid
susselsat               (see "sysselsatt")
svartbrune              black-brown, dark brown
svartkinn               black cheek
svartflekket            black spotted
svag                    (see "svak")
svak                    weak
svakhet                 weakness
svart                   black
svend                   (see "svenn")
svenn                   journeyman
svensk                  Swedish
Sverige                 Sweden
svigerdatter            daughter-in-law
svigerfader             (see "svigerfar")
svigerfar               father-in-law
svigerforeldre          father-in-law and mother-in-law
svigerinne              sister-in-law
svigermoder             (see "svigermor")
svigermor               mother-in-law
svigersønn              son-in-law
svin                    pig
svoger                  brother-in-law
svulst                  tumor
svulst i maven          tumor in the stomach
svær                    large
sy                      to sow
syd                     south
sydlig                  southern
sydvest                 south west
sydøst                  south eas
syerske                 seamstress, a woman who is sewing/ lives from sewing clothes etc
syfilis                 syphilis
syg                     (see "syk")
sygebesøg               (see "sykebesøk")
sygehuus                (see "sykehus")
sygehuuslem             hospital patient
sygelig                 (see "Syklig")
sygepleier              (see "sykepleier")
sygepleierske           (see "sykepleierske")
syk                     sick
sykdom                  disease, illnes
Sykdomstilstand, Sykdom Impairment
Varighet av
       sykdomstilstand  Duration of impairment
sykebesøk               sick call
sykehus                 hospital
sykepleier              nurse
sykepleierske           nurse (female)
syklig                  sickly
synte                   thought
synet                   eyesight, the ability to see
sypige                  (see "sypike") (archaic)
sypike                  seamstress
syskenbarn              cousins (nn)
sysselsatt med          employed at
syster                  (see "søster") (nn)
sytten                  seventeen
syttende                seventeenth
sytti                   seventy
syttiende               seventieth
syv                     seven
syvende                 seventh
Sædegaard = setegaard   the nobleman's head farm where he was living.
                        'Sædegaardene' had economic priviledges - e.g. did not pay 
                        any taxes.
sængeliggende           (see "sengeliggende")
særtrekk                special facial feature
                        distinctive characteristics
Særeie                  Separate estate/property
særtrykk                offprint, a separate special printing
sæter                   (see "seter")
søen                    (see "sjø")
søfarende               (see "sjøfarende")
søfartsbok              seafaring book
søger                   seeks
søk i bikdearkivet      seek in picture archive
søkeord                 search-word (keyword)
sølje                   Sølje
sølv                    silver
sølvbeslag              silver mounting
sølvstandard            silverstandard 
sølvvaerksarb           (see "sølvverksarbeider")
sølvverksarbeider       silver smelter worker
sølveigar               farmer who owns his own farm, i.e. does not lease it (nn)
sølvmark                silvermark (in 1522 we can use the value of "landskyld"
                        - in some part of Norway - one mark silver would buy 6 to 
                        eight cows, while 8 marks would be the price of a nice farm)
sømsmed                 a man who made nails for horseshoes. 
                        He might also change shoes and nails on horses
sømand                  (see "sjømann")
søn                     (see "sønn") (archaic)
søndag                  Sunday
søndre                  southern
søner                   (see "sønner") plural of "sønn"
sønn                    son
sønne kjæreste          The son's wife-to-be, but not yet married in church
sønnedatter             son's daughter
sønner                  sons
sønnesøn                son's son
sør                     south
sørgrense               southern border
søsken                  siblings
søslaget                (see "sjøslaget")
sødskende               (see "søsken")
søskenbarn              niece, nephew, first cousin (female or male)
søskenbarnet            the first cousin
søster                  sister
søsterdatter            sister's daughter, cousins
søstersønn              sister's son, cousins
søt                     sweet, nice, pretty, cute
søvverksarbei           (see "sølvverksarbeider")
så                      saw (see), so, if so,
                        sow (seed)
sådan                   such
såkalt                  so called
såkurv                  sowing basket
således                 thus, in this or that
såsom                   as, such as
såvidt                  as far as



T.                      abbr. for "tellingssted" or "tellingskrets"
tste                    abbr. for "tjeneste"
ta                      to take
tages                   is/are taken
tab                     (see "tap")
tak                     roof
Tak og Farvel           Thank you and Goodbye (memorial)
takk                    thank you
takk for maten          is what everyone is supposted to say after a meal, 
                        and the host(ess) 
                        or the mother or whoever made the food, answers "vel bekomme"
takksigelse             thanksgiving
takst                   rated value
tale                    speech
tall                    number, count
tallet, 1800-tallet     century, 19th century etc
talrig                  (see "tallrik")
tallrik                 numerous
tambur                  drummer (soldier)
tann                    tooth
tannlege                dentist
tannlæge                (see "tannlege")
tanntekniker            dental mechanic
tante                   aunt
tarm                    bowel, gut, intestine
tarmslyng               volvulus
tap                     loss
tapperhet               courage
tarmslyng               volvulus
tatt                    the perfect participle form of the Norwegian verb 'ta' or 
                        'take', which means 'take' in English
tatt av snøskred        taken in avalanche
taus                    quiet
                        (see also "tøs")
tautrekking             means a tug-of-war, in other words a conflict
teglverk                brickworks
teglbrander             (see "teglbrænder)
teglbrænder             brick/tile burner and refers to one who tends the firing of bricks.
tegnebok                sketching book
tegning                 drawing
teig                    field on a farm
teksel                  (see "bøkkerøks")
teksle                  (see "bøkkerøks")
tekstil                 textile
tekstilarbeider         textile worker
tekstilingeniør         textile engineer
tekstilarbeider         textile worker at the warehouse
tele                    ground frost, frozen soil, frozen ground, frost, ice
telefon                 telephone
telegrafverket          (see "televerket")
telegrafist             telegraphist, telegraph operator, radio operator
telegrafistinde         telegraphist, telegraph operator (female)
Televerktet             phone company in Norway, now named as Telenor
tellinga                literally means counting, but probably means census here.
tellingstedet           location of census, enumeration place
tellingskrets           location of census, enumeration place
telt                    tent, marquee
telthus                 tent house
tempel                  temple, fane 
Tempelsvøben            temple whip
tenestejenta            (see "tjenestejente")
terne                   housemaid
testamente              last will
testamentere            bequeath
tettsted                community  /  densely populated area
                        is a town-like place which does not qualify to be called a 
                        "by" in Norwegian.
                        may consist of only a few houses, but still be considered 
                        as a sort of centre by people who live in the area.
                        is also used about places like Sunndalsøra (pop. ca 5000), 
                        Orkanger (ca 4000), and Meråker (ca 2000), to mention a few.
                        Americans (the ones I know, anyway) seem to call these places 
                        In Norway, a "tettsted" is part of a "kommune" - municiplaity - 
                        it is not a separate unit.
texel                   (see "bødkerøks")
                        Sheep from the Nederland
ti                      ten
tid                     time
tidlig                  early
tidligere               earlier, prior
tidsperiode             period of time
tidsskrift              periodical
tiend                   tithing, one tenth of ones's income or harvest, 
                        payable to the church
tiende                  tenth, tithing
tiener                  (see "tjener")
tienestedreng           (see "tjenestedreng")
tienestepige            (see "tjenestepike")
tigger                  beggar
til                     to, until, for
til minne om            in the memory of
til sjøs                at sea
tilbage                 (see "tilbake")
tilbake                 back, stay
tilbakestående          mentally retarded
tilbringe               spend one's time
tilgang                 access, approach, admissions
tilgjengelig            assessible
tilhøre                 belong to
tilhørende              belonging to
tilhøve                 condition
tilkjøpt                (see "kjøpe til")
tillatelse              dispensation, permission
tillegge                ascribe to, attribute to, assign to
tillit                  confidence
tillysnings dagene      days banns were read
tilreisende             visitor
tilsett ved             (see "ansatt ved")
tilsist                 behind, last, at the end, finally
tilstede                present
tilsynsmand             supervisor
tilstedeværende         present
tilsøs                  (see "til sjøs")
tilvekst                growth of some kind
time                    hour
timmermand              (see "tømmermann")
tine                    round or oval bentwood box, with handle on lid, which is 
                        closed by being pressed between two upright pieces of Wood,
                        Pine bentwood Box melting
ting                    thing; legislative or judicial Assembly 
                        (local, regional or national)
tingbøker               protocols from local meeting of juridical importance
tinglag                 judicial district
tinglyse                public announcement of the existence of a written contract, 
                        prior to the contract being copied into the 'tingbok' - a book 
                        containing copies of such publicly announced documents.
                        The past tense of tinglyse is tinglyst. The Tingbok is a very 
                        important source for Norwegian genealogy research.
tingprovet              evidence at court
tinn                    pewter 
tinnfat                 pewter dish 
tinnknapper             pewter buttons
tinnvarer               pewter 
tippe                   bet, do the pools, place a bet, make a bet
tippoldefar             great-great-grandfather
tippoldemor             great-great-grandmother
tippoldeforeldre        great-great-grandparents
tirsdag                 Tuesday
titel                   (see "tittel") (archaic)
tittel                  title
tiur                    wood grouse
tj.                     (see "tjener" or "tjenestedreng" or "tjenestepige")
tjene                   serve, work, earn
tjener                  servant, waiter
tjenerskatt             in 1711  servant tax
tjeneste                service
tjenestedreng           servant, employee (male)
tjenestefolk            servants, either domestic or hired hands
tjenesteforseelse       service misconduct
tjenestegut             (see "tjenestegutt")
tjenestegutt            young male servant
tjenesteiver            eagerness to serve
tjenestekarl            male employee
tjenestekone            female servant
tjenestejente           young femal servant, maid
tjenestepige            (see "tjenestepike")
tjenestepike            servant, employee, maid (female), housemaid
tjenestequinde          servant (female)
tjenestgjorde           served
tjente                  served, earned
tjonn                   (see "tjønn") (dialekt)
tjern                   pond, tarn, small lake
tjue (tyve)             twenty
tjueen                  twenty-one
tjuefem                 twenty-five
tjuefire                twenty-four
tjuende                 twentieth
tjueni                  twenty-nine
tjueseks                twenty-six
tjuesju                 twenty-seven
tjueto                  twenty-two
tjuetre                 twenty-three
tjueåtte                twenty-eight
tjønn                   (see "tjern") nn
to                      two
to i spann              two in tow
toetasjers              two story (building9
tog                     train
tohundre                two-hundred
tok                     took
told                    (see "toll")
Toldrorskarl            man who rowed the boat(s) for the custom service. 
                        The custom service always had boats and rowers ready 
                        to get fast out and inspect the ships coming into harbour
                        (before they could bring anything ashore).
toll                    customs
tollbetjent             customs officer
tollekniv               sheath knife
tollverket              customs department
tolv                    twelve
tolvte                  twelfth
tommar                  (see "tommer")
tommer                  inches
tommermand              (see "tømmermann")
tomset                  half-witted
tomsing                 half-wit, fool, jerk
tomt                    lot (of land)
tomtearbeider           working at building sites
tomansbruk              a semi-detached farm, perhaps owned by a single individual,
                        but used simultaneously by two different farmers torp                                             common ending of farm and village names (swedish), 
                        se also  Swedish dictionary
torsdag                 Thursday
tre                     three
                        the number three
traevirke               (see "trevirke")
traesliberiarbeider     (see "tresliperiarbeider")
traersker               (see "tresker")
tran                    cod liver oil
tranbrænderi            (see "tranbrenneri")

trau                    trough 
tredje                  third
tredve                  thirty
trefningene             the engagements
trekkegarn              drawnet
Trekkspill              Pictures and information about Trekkespill (Accordion family)
trelast                 load of lumber
trelastvirksomhed       lumber firm
tremassefabrikk         pulp factory
tremenning              second cousins
trenagler               wooden nail, wooden peg, wooden pin (used for fastening planks)
treskjemaskin           threshing machine
treskje                 thresh, threshing
                        spoon made of wood
tresko                  Wooden shoes 
tresker                 thresher
tresliperi              pulp mill
tresliperiarbeider      a worker in a pulp mill
tretten                 thirteen
trettende               thirteenth
tretti                  thirty
trettien                thirty-one
trevarer                wooden items
treverk                 things made out of tree
trevirke                woodworking
trol.                   (see "trolovelse")
trolig                  probably
trollat                 to be mischievous
trollpakk               pack of trolls
                        naughty children
trollskap               witchcraft
trolove                 betroth, engage
trolovelse              betrothment, engagement
                        (This is a public announcement (in church) of betrothal was 
                        a legal requirement. Without it you could not marry. 
                        I think these lasted until late 1800 or even early 1900's.)
trolovet                (see "forlovet")
trosbekjennelse         creed
trossamf                (abbreviation for " Trossamfund")
trossamfunn             religious belief, Religious community
trulig                  (See "trolig") (nn)
træsliberi              (see "tresliperi")
træsliberiearbeider     (see "tresliperiarbeider")
trædreier               wood turner (as with a lathe)
træfningerne            (see "trefningene")
Træfningen ved ...      the military action at ...
træk                    to draw
træsliberi              pulp mill
Trønder                 a native of Trøndelag
trøye                   jacket, vest
trådte                  stepped over
tuberkulose             tuberculosis, consumption
tuft                    site, homestead
tugthus                 (see "tukthus") (archaic)
tukthus                 prison
tulft                   old currency, see Old measurements
tungarbeid              heavy work
tunet                   the courtyard
tusen                   thousand
tuskhandel              barter
tusle                   patter, walk gently
tuslede                 weak, shaky
tusmørke                dusk, twilight
tussefløyte             (see "fløyte")
tvangsfange             prisoner (at hard labor)
tvangsarbeide           hard labor, forced labor
tvende                  twain, the same as two (archaic)
tvilling                twin
tyende                  female servant (archaic)
tyfus                   typhoid fever
typograf                typographer
tysk                    German
tyskertøs               German tart, Jerry tart
Tyskland                Germany
tyv                     thief
tyve                    twenty
tyvende                 twentieth
tæle                    (see "tele")
tændestik               (see "fyrstikker") (danish)
tæring                  galloping tuberculosis, which brought death very fast
tømmer                  lumber, timber
tømmerarbeider          worker on lumber
tømmerbygning           timberhouse
tømmerflaader           (see "tømmerfløter")
tømmerfløyter           (see "tømmerfløter")
tømmerfløter            log driver, riverd river
tømmerfløting           river driving of logs
tømmerhugger            logger
tømmerfut               the saw-mill owner's
                        A representative/law clerk supervising timber cutting, 
                        marking and transport.
                        A "tømmerfut" in a town is the crown's representative who 
                        also puts a price on the timber the crown wants to buy.
tømmermand              (see "tømmermann")
tømmermann              carpenter, framer, timber cruiser
tømmerstova             (see "tømmerstuen")
tømmerstuen             log cabin, house
tønne                   barrel; In 1801 the barrels was made of wooden straps. 
                        The wooden straps was made of a half of a thin branch and 
                        in the ends were made
                        like some kind of hooks so they could be hooked together.
tønnefabrikk            barrel factory
tønnestavar             barrel staves.
tørke                   drought
tørrfisk                usually  cod, dried in open air without salt, usually  
                        hung on "hjeller", see also "lutefisk"
tøes                    (see "tyende")
tøs                     (see "tyende")
tå                      from (nn)